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Section 6: Key Terms List
Principal as Instructional Leader (268)

The key terms listed here are intended to supplement the curriculum, materials, and experiences provided to candidates by preparation programs.

The key terms provide concepts and language that are part of the focus of the Principal as Instructional Leader examination (268). These key terms are important tools for candidates and preparation programs to expand their knowledge base, particularly around instructional leadership.

The key terms listed below are not intended to be a glossary of educational leadership concepts. Rather, the list is representative of key concepts that candidates and/or preparation programs might not be familiar with unless specific planning and consideration is taken.

Key Terms

  1. Change Management Process — A practice of taking deliberate and intentional actions in response to a specific problem in order to achieve a desired outcome. Change management includes consideration for processes, systems, organization structures, and people to make a successful transition to a desired outcome.
  2. Continuous Improvement Process — A cycle of improvement are actions that are sustained over extended periods of time and focused on improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of a school. An ongoing, multifaceted plan is part of an organizational commitment to enhancing a school's effectiveness and includes steps for identification, planning, execution, and assessing progress.
  3. Culturally Responsive Teaching — A student-centered approach to teaching in which students' unique cultural strengths are identified and nurtured in all aspects of learning to promote student achievement and a sense of well-being for all students.
  4. English Learners (ELs) and English Language Learners (ELLs) — A student who is learning the English language in addition to his or her native language. ELL is referred to on the Texas Academic Performance Report (TAPR), while EL is referred to in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Both terms are used in assessment questions to reference the same student group.
  5. Exemplar — An example or model that has the characteristics of a high-quality response. An exemplar is a concrete illustration of the evidence needed to meet a desired standard. (See an exemplar shown in a sample score of 4 response.)
  6. Exit Ticket — A short formative assessment given by a teacher after completing a lesson to determine the degree to which students have learned the material taught in the lesson.
  7. Instructional Coaching — A process for developing a teacher's knowledge, skills, and practice to improve instruction and student learning. By offering individual support and feedback in a nonevaluative and trusting setting, an instructional coach works with the teacher to provide ongoing and job-embedded professional development specific to the teacher's needs.
  8. Item Analysis — A data-review process focused on studying individual questions on an assessment. An item analysis allows educators to evaluate the quality of each question and facilitates data disaggregation to measure student performance at different levels, determine student misconceptions, and plan interventions.
  9. High-Leverage — Having the characteristics of the most effective and efficient way to address the most important aspect of a situation.
  10. Probing Question — A question that is intended to help others think more deeply about an issue. Probing questions are more than clarifying questions and move toward challenging assumptions and exposing contradictions, which leads to new understandings.
  11. Protocol — A well-defined structure or set of actions, usually in the form of a simple one- or two-page document, that is used by educators to structure professional conversation and ensure that meeting time is efficient, purposeful, and productive.
  12. Real-time Feedback — A practice by an instructional coach to give feedback to a teacher while the lesson is in progress in order to provide immediate feedback and enhance the teacher's execution of instruction.
  13. Root-cause Analysis — The process for determining the deepest underlying reason a problem occurs, such that, if the cause is removed, the symptoms of the problem can be eliminated or substantially reduced.
  14. Show Call — A teaching technique used after a written task is completed. The teacher chooses a student example to show the class and calls on various students to discuss in detail some aspect of the student work. This technique can be a great tool for studying characteristics and common errors of student work for all students' benefit.
  15. Think Pair Share — A discussion technique that gives students the opportunity to think about a question presented by the teacher. Then students pair up with a classmate to compare mental or written notes. Finally, the teacher calls on pairs of students to share their thinking with the rest of the class. Asking students to write and discuss ideas with a partner before sharing with the larger group builds confidence, encourages greater participation, and results in more thoughtful discussions.
  16. Turn and Talk — An instructional strategy that allows all students to participate in discussions. When using this strategy, students turn and talk to a classmate about a topic at the teacher's prompting. All students are able to process new learning while engaging in meaningful conversation with a classmate.

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