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Section 4: Sample Selected-Response Questions
Early Childhood: PK–3 (292)

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This section presents some sample exam questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the exam. To demonstrate how each competency may be assessed, sample questions are accompanied by the competency that they measure. While studying, you may wish to read the competency before and after you consider each sample question. Please note that the competency statements do not appear on the actual exam.

The sample questions are included to illustrate the formats and types of questions you will see on the exam; however, your performance on the sample questions should not be viewed as a predictor of your performance on the actual exam.

Selected-Response Questions with Rationales

Each sample exam question here includes the correct answer and a rationale for each answer option.

Domain I—Child Development

Competency 001—(Foundations of Child Development): Understand foundational concepts of early childhood development from birth to age 8 and factors that influence student development.

1. Kindergarten students have been creating shapes using colorful rubber bands and geoboards. Which of the following instructional activities would promote students' progress with cognitive concepts relating to shapes?

  1. displaying geoboards in the classroom and encouraging students to explain their understandings of shapes
  2. presenting an example of an intricate shape to the students using precise vocabulary terms
  3. comparing students' geoboards during circle time based on characteristics of shapes
  4. providing ongoing shape exploration with additional materials for students to use independently
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because when students are given the opportunity to create and contrast shapes using personal work samples, they are more likely to develop cognitive concepts related to shapes, such as recognizing and comparing shapes, acquiring geometric vocabulary, and developing spatial visualization. Option A is incorrect because prompting students to explain their understanding of shapes will not promote students' development of geometric concepts, but would be considered a formative assessment approach to evaluate their understanding of shapes. Option B is incorrect because presenting an example of a shape would not encourage students to analyze similarities and differences in shapes. Option D is incorrect because engaging students in independent exploration does not scaffold students' cognitive development. For exploration to be successful, it needs to be preplanned by the teacher and purposeful to meet a goal.

2. A prekindergarten teacher is using a shared reading strategy with a three-year-old child who demonstrates an expressive language delay. As the child becomes more responsive to answering knowledge-level questions, which of the following practices should the teacher add to the strategy?

  1. playing audiobooks for the child and then asking the child questions about the books to determine listening comprehension skills
  2. developing the child's precise vocabulary by encouraging the child to repeat words illustrated on flash cards
  3. engaging the child with interactive software designed to develop semantic knowledge and practice age-appropriate syntax
  4. promoting dialogue with the child through open-ended questions that relate to areas of the child's interests during read-alouds
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because promoting dialogue with children about their prior knowledge and interests in connection with text is an evidenced-based intervention and a scaffolding strategy that supports reading comprehension as well as verbal expression. When background knowledge is developed and integrated with reading, children are more likely to derive language meaning from text, which promotes children's abilities to think about and express reading content and structure. Option A is incorrect because playing audiobooks for the child and asking questions about them would foster the child's receptive comprehension skills but not higher-level expressive language abilities. Option B is incorrect because encouraging the child to repeat words illustrated on flash cards would support the child's ability to say specific words but is not an effective strategy for supporting the child's ability to derive meaning from the text or express text connections. Option C is incorrect because engaging the child in interactive software focusing on semantic knowledge and syntax would promote the child's knowledge about the content, but would not foster responses beyond a knowledge level.

Competency 002—(The Early Learning Process): Understand the developmental processes and characteristics of learning of young children from birth to age 8.

3. A four-year-old child is building towers using wooden blocks of different shapes and colors. The yellow blocks are long and wide and the green blocks are short and narrow. The child builds a tower made with yellow blocks at the bottom and green blocks on the top and says, "Look, my tower is so tall, and the green blocks are all on top!" The teacher responds, "Wow, your tower is so straight and tall! What do you think would happen if you make another tower using the green blocks on the bottom this time?" This scenario demonstrates the teacher's awareness of how incidental learning experiences can be used to:

  1. deepen children's knowledge through exploration and hypothesis testing.
  2. establish trust by responding to children's appropriate expression of needs.
  3. evaluate children's ability to develop hypothesis and prediction skills.
  4. facilitate activities that promote children's ability to sustain attention to tasks.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the teacher's actions foster the child's motivation and interest in learning. In the scenario, the teacher encourages the child to generate and test a hypothesis while engaging in a preferred activity that is highly motivating. Option B is incorrect because the scenario demonstrates that the teacher is conversing with the child about what is happening with the blocks and additional actions the child could take with the blocks, not establishing trust by responding to the child's needs. Option C is incorrect because the teacher's actions do not indicate that the child's ability to develop a hypothesis or generate a prediction is being evaluated, instead that this skill is being developed. Option D is incorrect because although the child's sustained attention is likely to be facilitated when engaging in preferred activities, incidental teaching involves instruction and engagement that is child-directed, which is not present in this scenario.

4. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies a situation in which a child's separation anxiety behaviors signify the need to intervene and provide a developmentally appropriate response and support?

  1. a four-year-old hides behind her parent's/guardian's leg at prekindergarten drop-off while waiting for the teacher to greet her
  2. a five-year-old repeatedly bites his nails and appears quiet at the start of the kindergarten school year
  3. a seven-year-old pleads for his father to stay with him in his first-grade classroom and complains of stomachaches daily at school
  4. an eight-year-old prefers to work alone rather than in small groups in her second-grade classroom
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because typically by age seven, students have developed the ability to separate from parents/guardians and demonstrate the ability to stay in the classroom without them. Daily stomachaches are a sign that something is wrong with a child's health. Anxiety often manifests as physical symptoms, such as a stomachache, in a child. A first-grade student who presents with excessive fear and exhibits somatic symptoms due to parent/guardian separation requires an intervention to manage anxiety and develop emotional skills. Options A and B are incorrect because the behaviors exhibited by both students in the scenarios are developmentally appropriate. Option D is incorrect because a student who prefers to work alone does not require an intervention for separation anxiety but may require some social skills supports.

Competency 003—(Family Engagement): Understand the role and importance of the family in supporting the learning and development of young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

5. A kindergarten teacher is preparing for the first conferences of the school year. The teacher plans to provide parents/guardians with an overview of the grade-level Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and information about classroom procedures and schoolwide expectations. Which of the following additional actions by the teacher would best support the teacher in developing a positive relationship with families?

  1. ensuring that parents/guardians understand the best way to schedule a meeting with the teacher
  2. reminding parents/guardians of their specific responsibilities to support their children's learning
  3. encouraging parents/guardians to share insights that would help the teacher promote their children's learning
  4. providing parents/guardians with examples of research to support the teacher's instructional approaches
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because when teachers view parents/guardians as experts on their children and invite them to share their insights in collaborative discussions, they are creating an atmosphere of trust, positive regard, and respect. For this reason, establishing communication with parents/guardians has been shown to increase the educational outcomes of students. Option A is incorrect because ensuring parents/guardians know how to schedule a meeting with the teacher provides information about communication but does not foster or sustain communication. Option B is incorrect because reminding s/guardians about their responsibilities regarding their children's learning does not promote a shared dialogue between the parents/guardians and the teacher and does not contribute to the development of a relationship. Option D is incorrect because providing parents/guardians with research about instructional approaches is informative but does not contribute to the development of a relationship between parent/guardian and teacher.

6. The parents/guardians of incoming prekindergarten children are provided with handbooks to support their understanding of what the children will learn each school year. An excerpt of the handbook is shown below.

Understanding What Your Child Will Learn in Prekindergarten—Three-Year-Olds
Reading and Literacy

Listening Goals:

  • Follow two- or three-step directions during activities, playing, or cleaning up.
  • Have short conversations with expected words and phrases.

Reading Goals:

  • Enjoy being read to and exploring books.
  • Name familiar characters or events from books.

Writing Goals:

  • Make scribbles, line marks, and letter-like forms when asked to write.

Which of the following principles does the practice of providing these handbooks most effectively promote?

  1. developing parents'/guardians' knowledge of how teachers accommodate individual children's learning needs
  2. engaging parents/guardians in understanding the expectations for their children's academic development
  3. ensuring parents'/guardians' acceptance of what the school believes is best for their children's learning
  4. supporting parents'/guardians' involvement in decision making for the school's academic curriculum
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because it is important that schools communicate learning expectations to parents/guardians. One method is to provide information outlining what children are learning in the classroom and what they can be expected to learn during the school year. When parents/guardians are knowledgeable about what their children are learning, they are more likely to feel included in their children's education. Option A is incorrect because this practice would not develop parents'/guardians' knowledge of how teachers accommodate individual children's learning needs, which is information that is based on individual children's strengths and needs. Option C is incorrect because the goal of this practice would be to educate parents/guardians about their children's learning, not to assert the beliefs of the school on parents/guardians. Option D is incorrect because the intention for this practice would be an informative sharing of information and would be separate from encouraging parents'/guardians' involvement in future decision making for the school's academic curriculum.

Domain II—The Instructional Setting

Competency 004—(Social Skills, Emotional Development, and Behavior Support): Understand how to create positive environments and relationships that help develop interpersonal skills, autonomy, and initiative to explore and learn in young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

7. Considering the developmental stages of brain growth and cognitive development of young children, which of the following teacher activities would most effectively promote development of executive function in four-year-olds?

  1. providing children with challenging puzzles and riddles that foster thinking skills in mathematics
  2. modeling organizational routines for children and practicing these routines with them often
  3. asking children to choose their favorite game in the classroom and during outdoor play
  4. allowing children to spend most of the prekindergarten day participating in self-directed activities
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because as executive function develops, children increasingly gain skills in their ability to attend, regulate emotions, and engage in goal-directed behavior. Modeling and practicing organizational routines promotes children's abilities to organize, plan, and self-monitor while engaging in daily classroom activity. Executive function is a cognitive domain which includes working memory, flexible thinking, and inhibitory control. Option A is incorrect because providing children with mathematics puzzles and riddles would be beneficial for children's development of mathematics skills, but not necessarily their development of executive function. Option C is incorrect because asking children to choose their favorite game would work to increase children's autonomy and motivation but is unlikely to improve executive function. Option D is incorrect because allowing children to spend most of the day in self-directed activities would likely promote curiosity and exploration, but not executive function. It is also is not best practice to focus most of the day on self-directed activities.

8. A third-grade teacher notices that a few students who are highly motivated during science instruction appear disinterested when learning social studies content. The teacher could best use developmentally responsive strategies to promote the students' participation in social studies in which of the following ways?

  1. providing opportunities to develop study skills tailored to support students' achievement in social studies
  2. defining social studies learning outcomes to be more qualitative, including interactive features for students to study topics independently
  3. creating cross-curricular learning modules for students designed to support connections to social studies
  4. setting a predetermined time requirement for students to complete work during social studies to earn an incentive
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because cross-curricular instruction supports students' broader understanding of content and develops their awareness of the ways in which subject areas are integrated. The teacher could use the students' motivation for science to encourage motivation in social students by integrating the two subjects using similar approaches to content. Option A is incorrect because developing study skills tailored to social studies may improve students' progress in this subject area but may not necessarily improve students' interest or motivation. Option B is incorrect because defining learning outcomes to be more qualitative may provide the teacher with more specific information about students' progress but will not provide students with motivation to participate. Additionally, as the students are disinterested in social studies in a group setting, working independently will likely lead to more student distraction and off-task behaviors. Option D is incorrect because providing incentives for sustained work in the subject area is unlikely to promote students' intrinsic motivation to learn social studies content and, as a result, will not likely result in long-term active engagement.

Competency 005—(The Instructional Setting): Understand how to create positive learning environments that promote the development and learning of young children in prekindergarten to grade 3.

9. A first-grade teacher notices that a number of students have been frequently off-task and demonstrating difficulty completing projects in learning center environments within the classroom. The teacher would like to increase student engagement during these activities. After determining that the center activities do not align with student interests, which of the following approaches should the teacher take first to promote this goal?

  1. creating a separate work area of the classroom where students who cannot finish projects during center time can work
  2. providing opportunities for student choice in assignments and learning materials within the centers
  3. encouraging students to partner with classmates with whom they enjoy working during center activities
  4. implementing direct whole-group instruction instead of center activities until students demonstrate focused learning
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because offering students choices of activities and materials is likely to increase their intrinsic motivation to engage in activities, thus promoting student learning. When students are given choice-making opportunities, they are more likely to explore, engage, and demonstrate their learning. Option A is incorrect because this approach will not foster curiosity, exploration, or engagement which are necessary for learning. Option C is incorrect because although flexible student groupings are likely to increase social engagement, allowing students to select their group members may lead to increased off-task behaviors as students often choose their friends who are not necessarily the classmates with whom they can focus most effectively. Option D is incorrect because students who have difficulty attending during center-based learning activities are likely to have difficulty attending to whole-group instruction as well.

10. A second-grade teacher notices that at certain times of the day, students in the class become easily distracted and display outbursts of excitable energy. Which of the following supports would be most appropriate to address the needs of the students?

  1. dividing the class into small groups and assigning students independent group work projects
  2. incorporating learning opportunities for students that promote purposeful and vigorous movement
  3. playing soothing music for students and allowing them to take a short break to rest
  4. providing rewards of extra recess for students who are able to focus on their work
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because movement breaks have been proven to increase students' productivity by increasing attention, which impacts behavior and the ability to remain on task. In addition, movement breaks have been shown to boost neural connectivity, promoting attention and memory, cognitive functioning, and the ability to cope with stress. Option A is incorrect because dividing the class into groups to complete independent projects will not address the students' distractibility and their needs to exert physical energy. Option C is incorrect because playing soothing music also will not meet students' needs to exert physical energy, and may contribute to increased distractibility for some students. Option D is incorrect because withholding recess opportunities for students who have difficulty attending will not meet their need for physical activity, and will likely have the opposite outcome of causing students to be more restless.

Domain III—Educating All Learners

Competency 006—(Differentiation Strategies in Planning and Practice)—Understand how to identify and implement developmentally appropriate strategies and practices to effectively teach and engage young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

11. A second-grade teacher is planning an end-of-unit assessment. The teacher has a goal of incorporating universal design for learning (UDL) principles throughout the unit's lesson design and assessments. Which of the following strategies would be the most effective application of UDL for the teacher to use to assess student knowledge?

  1. pairing students and having them cooperate on a take-home written assessment
  2. allowing students to choose from a list of project activities that allow for a variety of means of expression
  3. creating a class game that allows students to demonstrate their knowledge by answering questions orally
  4. designing a short-answer assessment that students can complete at any point within a set time period
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because one of the central components of universal design for learning (UDL) is providing multiple means of representation, either in methodology of instruction or assessment of students. This is based on the premise that learners differ in the ways in which they perceive, comprehend, and transfer information. Projects that allow for a variety of means of expression, such as media, illustrations, images, interactive graphics, oral language, or writing, provides students with more than one way to transfer or demonstrate their knowledge. Options A, C, and D are incorrect because these options only demonstrate a single means of assessing students' knowledge, rather than a variety of assessment methods.

12. A kindergarten teacher observes a student investigating the balance scales in the simple machines learning center. The teacher watches as the student adds the entire collection of pennies to one side of the balance scale, where the full pan is already resting on the tabletop. The teacher says, "When you added pennies to the full side, it stayed down. I wonder about the other side. What can you do to the empty side to make it go down?" The teacher's interaction with the student is an example of which of the following techniques?

  1. explaining the scientific method
  2. scaffolding conceptual understanding
  3. facilitating interdisciplinary content connections
  4. differentiating learning experiences
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the teacher's observations and question encourage the student to engage in problem solving using exploration and observation to develop a basic understanding of measurement. Option A is incorrect because the teacher does not explain the scientific method, which would include a number of systematic steps to test a hypothesis. Option C is incorrect because the teacher does not facilitate interdisciplinary content connections; the teacher focuses solely on the balance scale. Option D is incorrect because there is no evidence that the teacher has modified the activity to support the student's needs.

Competency 007—(Culturally Responsive Practices)—Understand how to identify and implement culturally responsive, developmentally appropriate practices to effectively teach and engage young children from prekindergarten to grade 3 across all content areas.

13. A third-grade teacher considers practices to use during the first week of school that will foster the students' sense of a culturally inclusive classroom. Which of the following practices would best support the teacher's goal?

  1. adapting classroom lessons based on students' preferred learning styles
  2. asking students to bring in an item that represents their cultural background
  3. creating activities that encourage students to share interest in the cultural backgrounds of peers
  4. emphasizing relatable books from a variety of cultural perspectives in the classroom library that students may select
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because creating activities that encourage all students to share interest in the cultural backgrounds of all peers would effectively facilitate a culturally inclusive classroom. This teaching strategy is likely to promote a shared understanding of each other's perspectives, experiences, values, strengths, and needs. Option A is incorrect because varying lessons based on learning styles, such as through auditory, visual, and tactile/kinesthetic means, does not necessarily lead to a culturally inclusive classroom. Option B is incorrect because show and tell practices are less likely to encourage student inquiry, whereas interactive activities and discussion encourage students to share their experiences, which is likely to instill a deeper understanding of cultural identity. In addition, students may not have an item that represents their cultural background, since objects are unlikely to communicate social belonging. Option D is incorrect because including diverse books in a classroom library is not a culturally responsive teaching strategy, but a culturally responsive practice. Culturally response strategies are those that combine content teaching with students' cultural background to promote inclusion by encouraging personal connections, enhancing meaning by establishing relevance, and fostering positive disposition towards learning. 

Domain IV—Data-Driven Practice and Formal/Informal Assessment

Competency 008—(Developmentally Appropriate Assessment and Practice): Understand the types, selection, and uses of developmentally appropriate assessments and assessment practices to effectively support young children's learning in prekindergarten to grade 3.

14. Use the excerpts below to answer the question that follows.

National Oral Reading Fluency Norms
Grade Percentile Winter WCPM Spring WCPM
1 90 81 111
75 47 82
50 23 53
25 12 28
10 6 15
Key: Words Correct Per Minute = WCPM
Classroom Teacher's Progress-Monitoring Data
Student: WW Grade: 1
Concern addressed with progress monitoring: Reading Fluency
Intervention: Timed repeated readings on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Record progress data on Fridays.
Goal: 53 words correct per minute (WCPM) Assessment: Oral Reading Fluency weekly
Monday Wednesday Friday Data (WCPM)
3/2 3/4 3/6 34 WCPM
3/9 3/11 3/13 36 WCPM
3/16 3/18 3/20 40 WCPM
3/23 3/25 (absent) 3/27 40 WCPM

Which of the following statements best describes the intervention for student WW?

  1. The goal for WW's intervention is set too high considering the student's grade and time of year.
  2. The intervention is not working and the teacher needs to try a different intervention.
  3. The intervention appears to be working and should be continued.
  4. WW falls into the 50th percentile of students in the same grade; therefore, no intervention is needed.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the student's data indicates that the student is making progress. In approximately three weeks, the student's word count per minute (WCPM) increased from 34 to 40. As a result, the teacher should continue using this intervention. Option A is incorrect because a goal of 53 WCPM is an appropriate instructional match for the student. When a student's reading fluency is at grade-level but below benchmark standards, best practice suggests establishing a goal at the 25th percentile. Given the student's baseline performance was slightly above the 25th percentile, establishing a goal between the 25th and 50th percentiles would be considered a good instructional match. Option B is incorrect because there is no evidence to support the claim that the intervention is not working. Option D is incorrect because the student's WCPM is not at the 50th percentile according to the National Oral Reading Fluency Norms. 

Competency 009—(Progress Monitoring and Data-Driven Instructional Practice): Understand how to design, implement, and evaluate learning experiences and instruction in order to promote development and learning of all students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

15. A second-grade teacher plans to embed developmentally appropriate activities into classroom routines to support students' application of skills in capitalization and punctuation. Which of the following approaches would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. asking students to identify and correct omitted punctuation and capitalization errors in morning messages and discussing the findings as a group
  2. encouraging students to include appropriate capitalization and punctuation during freewriting time
  3. creating opportunities for students to engage with peers to share the importance of using accurate capitalization and punctuation
  4. developing assignments for students to edit peers' writing for capitalization and punctuation and provide corrections as needed
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because identifying mechanical errors in meaningful messages in the context of a daily, group activity would be considered a developmentally appropriate practice to explicitly model for students an authentic application of capitalization and punctuation skills. Also, the practice of group analysis and discussion is likely to promote students' motivation to engage in learning. Options B and D are incorrect because encouraging students to include capitalization and punctuation during freewriting and editing the writing mechanics of peers are not instructional practices embedded in the context of a classroom routine. Option C is incorrect because creating opportunities for students to share the importance of using accurate capitalization and punctuation would not be a developmentally appropriate practice given that second-grade students only have emerging metalinguistic knowledge of writing mechanics.

Domain V—Learning Across the Curriculum

Competency 010—(English Language Arts and Social Studies): Understand the foundational principles, concepts, and methods in English language arts and social studies to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

16. A third-grade teacher assigns students several newspaper articles to read that have differing opinions about a proposal to build a new park in the community. After reading the articles, students work in small groups to complete a T-chart listing the pros and cons of building the park. Each group then presents its results to the class. This activity is likely to be most effective in helping develop the students':

  1. ability to comprehend and analyze key information found in their reading.
  2. knowledge of the appropriate use of metacognitive strategies.
  3. understanding of inferential questioning to expand their knowledge.
  4. recall of key events and vocabulary presented in content-area readings.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because creating an activity in which students compare different perspectives of a community issue would most effectively develop their ability to identify and analyze key information and would scaffold students' writing abilities. Option B is incorrect because this activity does not promote students' use of metacognitive strategies, which include methods used to support students' understanding of how they learn. Option C is incorrect because the teacher is not promoting students' understanding of inferential questions in this activity, which would include developing understanding of hints and clues in text instead of clearly stated information. Option D is incorrect because this activity does not involve students recalling key events or vocabulary, it is instead focused on the pros and cons involved in this issue.

17. A first-grade teacher supports students' language development by regularly modeling storytelling. For example, the teacher tells the following brief story to students as part of introducing a science unit on living things.

"First, I dug a very small hole and put a sunflower seed in it. Next, I covered the seed with dirt and gently watered it. For the past five days I have gone outside to check to see whether the seed has sprouted, and all I have seen is a dirt mound! And guess what? This morning, when I went to check on it, I finally saw a tiny sprout coming through the dirt. I was elated!"

In addition to modeling storytelling, the teacher provides students with opportunities to tell their own stories. The teacher's use of these storytelling strategies best exemplifies which of the following approaches to supporting students' language development?

  1. infusing meaningful communication with students into multiple areas of the curriculum
  2. demonstrating developmentally appropriate use of figurative language for students
  3. teaching students explicit linguistic functions and form
  4. instructing students on the use of academic language in whole-class discussions
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the teacher uses storytelling to communicate about the life cycle of a plant while using key vocabulary, such as seed, sprouted, and sprout, and words indicating a sequence of events. The teacher also uses words that are likely unfamiliar to students, such as elated, in the context of a story to promote understanding of higher-level vocabulary. Option B is incorrect because the teacher does not use figurative language, which would include literary devices such as similes, metaphors, or personification. Option C is incorrect because the teacher does not explicitly teach linguistic functions (e.g., giving instructions, making requests) and form (e.g., language structures, vocabulary). Option D is incorrect because the teacher is not providing students with instruction on the use of academic language, although the teacher is modeling key vocabulary. 

Competency 011—(Mathematics): Understand foundational principles, concepts, and methods in mathematics to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

18. A kindergarten student recognizes that five pencils represent the same quantity as five desks, even though desks are much larger and heavier than pencils. The knowledge of this fundamental mathematical concept demonstrates that the student:

  1. can determine the approximate values of numbers from one to ten.
  2. has acquired an understanding of conservation.
  3. is able to demonstrate the concept of subitizing.
  4. will understand the relationship between numerals and ordinal numbers.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because number conservation understanding is a developmental milestone in which the student understands that a given number or quantity remains the same even though it may be arranged in different ways or through representation by different objects. Option A is incorrect because the student is not demonstrating understanding of approximate values of numbers, instead the focus of the scenario is just on the number five. Option C is incorrect because the student in the scenario is not subitizing, which is the ability to recognize the sum of a small group of objects without counting them. Option D is incorrect because the student is not demonstrating an understanding of the relationship between numerals (e.g., symbols denoting numbers) and ordinal numbers (e.g., first, second, third).

19. A third-grade math teacher collects the following data from 20 students after a mathematics quiz. The teacher plans to adjust instruction as needed based in part on these results.

Results from Quiz on Adding and Subtracting Fractions from the table below
For the first problem, 1 third plus 4 thirds, seven students chose the correct response, which was equals 5 thirds (or 1 and 2 thirds ). Eleven students chose the incorrect response of 5 sixths. Two students chose the incorrect response of 5 over 0.
For the second problem, 3 fifths minus 1 half , three students chose the correct response, which was equal to 1 tenth. Twelve students chose the incorrect response of 2 thirds. Five students chose the incorrect response of 4 sevenths. For the third problem, 4 fifths plus 4 tenths four students chose the correct response, which was equal to 12 tenths (or 6 fifths or 1 and 2 tenths or 1 and 1 fifth ). Eleven students chose the incorrect response of 8 fifteenths. Five students chose the incorrect response of 8 tenths.

Results from Quiz on Adding and Subtracting Fractions
Problem Solution 1 (correct) Number of Students with Solution 1 Response Solution 2 (incorrect)

Number of Students with Solution 2 Response Solution 3 (incorrect) Number of Students with Solution 3 Response
1 third plus 4 thirds equals 5 thirds left paren or 1 and 2 thirds right paren 7 equals 5 sixths 11 equals 5 over 0 2
3 fifths minus 1 half equals 1 tenth 3 equals 2 thirds 12 equals 4 sevenths 5
4 fifths plus 4 tenths equals 12 tenths left paren or 6 fifths or 1 and 2 tenths or 1 and 1 fifth right paren 4 equals 8 fifteenths 11 equals 8 tenths 5

These results show that the teacher should address students' misconceptions related to which of the following errors?

  1. changing the denominator of a mixed fraction and keeping the numerator the same
  2. using the largest denominator in the answer when fractions have different denominators
  3. treating numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers
  4. applying the invert-and-multiply procedure to fractions with different denominators
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because after analyzing the students' incorrect solutions, the teacher should address the misconception that the numerator and the denominator are separate whole numbers. In many of the incorrect responses, students added or subtracted the numerator and denominator, rather than recognizing that the fraction is part of a whole. Option A is incorrect because although many of the problems include fraction problems that require a common denominator, simply changing the denominator of mixed fractions would not address the students' misconception. Option B is incorrect because the students would need to determine the common denominator, not use the largest denominator which would be an erroneous solution. Option D is incorrect because the invert-and-multiply algorithm is used to divide fractions.

Competency 012—(Science and Technology Applications): Understand the foundational principles, concepts, and methods of teaching science and technology applications to provide developmentally appropriate instruction to students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

20. Teachers in the early elementary grades can best promote students' use of digital technology as tools for learning by emphasizing which of the following approaches?

  1. providing students with instruction in basic digital technology skills such as keyboarding
  2. integrating a variety of lessons for students linked to curriculum topics that can be supported using technology applications as appropriate and that promote attainment of the learning goal
  3. assigning every student a specific learning task that must be completed using digital technology and requesting that proficient students provide assistance to students experiencing difficulty with the task
  4. creating bookmarks on classroom digital technology that students can use to access approved online games
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because best practice recommends integrating digital technology across the curriculum in a variety of activities to engage students in student-centered, project-based learning opportunities. This approach is developmentally appropriate because it promotes students' use of technology in beneficial ways that enrich existing learning opportunities and do not detract from learning with unnecessary screen usage. Option A is incorrect because instruction in basic digital technology is important for students to learn but would not provide students with information about or experiences in digital technology enhancing their education. Option C is incorrect because targeting a specific task using technology and then asking proficient students to help others would be a narrower approach only succeeding in familiarizing students with one element of technology, and would not promote students' general use of digital technology. Option D is incorrect because effective implementation of digital technology should include more than online games and software, and should represent a structural change to support and expand students' learning experiences.

21. Use the third-grade student science center activity sheet below to answer the question that follows.

Which of the following phases of the 5-E plan is implemented at the science center?

  1. Exploration
  2. Explanation
  3. Elaboration
  4. Evaluation
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the purpose of exploration is to encourage discovery so that students can learn more about a concept in a hands-on way. For students to answer the questions in the scenario, they must explore the properties of the hard-boiled and raw eggs. Options B, C, and D are incorrect because the scenario does not require students to explain (e.g., share what they learned about the activity), elaborate (e.g., apply what they've learned), or evaluate (e.g., demonstrate what they've learned in the form of an assessment). Explanation, elaboration, and evaluation are all important components of learning but would take place after exploration.

Competency 013—(Fine Arts, Physical Education, and Health): Understand foundational skills, concepts, and methods to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for fine arts, physical education, and health to students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

22. A prekindergarten teacher presents various flowers for children to explore. Following their observations, the children are given art materials, including markers, construction paper, cotton balls, pipe cleaners, and tissue paper, to design their own creation. Which of the following concepts from the Fine Arts Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines is best exemplified by the activity?

  1. teaching children to notice the similarities and differences of objects in the environment and replicating the objects in their creations
  2. encouraging children to focus on the process of creating rather than the product that is created
  3. providing children with high-quality art materials to promote higher-order thinking skills
  4. supporting children in understanding the principles of design (e.g., repetition, balance) in their artwork
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because by giving children a number of materials to use to design their own creation, the teacher has designed an activity in which they are encouraged to focus on the process of creating, rather than the product that is created. Option A is incorrect because the children are not asked to observe similarities and differences or to replicate a teacher design or an example of a flower. Option C is incorrect because simply providing children with high-quality art materials will not promote the development of higher-order thinking skills. Option D is incorrect because the children are not given explicit instruction about principles of design.

Clustered Questions

Use the information below to answer the two questions that follow.

A prekindergarten teacher assesses children's social skills while observing their interactions during play activities by using the teacher-developed rating scale shown below.

Teacher Rating Scale—Social Skills
Child: Lena
Prekindergarten Guideline Target Skills September:
Child's Age: 3 years, 3 months
December:
Child's Age: 3 years, 6 months
Key: E = Emerging, D = Developed Skill Level: Skill Level:
E D E D
Relationship with Others:

I.C.I. Child increasingly interacts and communicates with peers to initiate pretend-play scenarios that share a common plan and goal.
Plays with two or three children in a group checked  blank  blank checked
Takes turns while playing checked  blank  blank checked
Negotiates with peers during play routines checked  blank checked  blank
Acts out pretend play with others checked  blank  blank checked
Plays more than one role  blank checked  blank checked
Acts out roles/themes that are less familiar (e.g., firefighter, veterinarian) checked  blank  blank checked

Competency 008—(Developmentally Appropriate Assessment and Practice): Understand the types, selection, and uses of developmentally appropriate assessments and assessment practices to effectively support young children's learning in prekindergarten to grade 3.

23. The teacher's assessment method is effective for which of the following purposes?

  1. measuring children's abilities within an authentic context using a tool that aligns with learning standards
  2. collecting specific data on children's abilities across a variety of content areas
  3. quantifying children's abilities and progress toward developmental milestones
  4. comparing children's abilities to same-aged peers using norm-referenced developmental criteria
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the teacher-developed rating scale is based on the learning outcomes established in the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines. The teacher measures the child's social development using the rating scale while observing the child within an authentic context. Options B and C are incorrect because the data collected does not measure the child's content area knowledge or progress toward developmental milestones. Option D is incorrect because the child's abilities are not compared to same-aged peers using norm-referenced criteria.

Competency 009—(Progress Monitoring and Data-Driven Instructional Practice): Understand how to design, implement, and evaluate learning experiences and instruction in order to promote development and learning of all students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

24. After analyzing the data, which of the following instructional strategies should the teacher implement to most effectively promote Lena's social development?

  1. telling Lena to let other children go first and to take turns using classroom materials
  2. modeling appropriate interactions for Lena while interacting with other children
  3. leading discussions about friendships with Lena centered on children's literature
  4. asking Lena to emulate children in the class who are working together productively
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because based on the data, Lena made progress towards developing all the social and emotional skills identified on the rating scale except for negotiating with peers during play routines. Modeling appropriate interactions while engaging socially with other children is an instructional strategy that would effectively promote her area of need. Option A is incorrect because directing Lena to take turns would not build social awareness or social language skills. Option C is incorrect because discussing friendships in a general way is unlikely to provide Lena with concrete strategies to use or to promote Lena's ability to solve conflicts with peers. Option D is incorrect because asking Lena to emulate other children is not an effective strategy for teaching specific social skills or for promoting social development in prekindergarten-age children.

Additional Selected-Response Questions

This section includes additional sample selected-response questions for you to review in preparation for the exam. The correct answer is provided for each question below.

Domain I—Child Development

Competency 001—(Foundations of Child Development): Understand foundational concepts of early childhood development from birth to age 8 and factors that influence student development.

25. Research suggests a strong correlation between effective, direct instruction in key components of reading and the development of literacy skills by English learners (ELs). Which of the following additional instructional strategies would be most effective for promoting the development of English vocabulary skills for ELs?

  1. following loosely structured lesson formats that allow more time to process English
  2. modeling how to use a digital English language dictionary
  3. using English exclusively to describe common actions when introducing new concepts
  4. providing frequent opportunities for the use of academic and social English in the classroom
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

26. A prekindergarten teacher plans to support the development of children's language skills during group story time. The class includes children who are at a beginning level of speaking and understanding English. Which of the following actions should the teacher take to attend to the language needs of English learners (ELs) in the group?

  1. calling on proficient English speakers to answer comprehension questions about the story
  2. using nonverbal cues to support ELs, such as pointing to an object or an illustration, while reading the story
  3. substituting synonyms for unfamiliar words during read-alouds to improve ELs' engagement with stories
  4. avoiding reading aloud stories that include English vocabulary with which the ELs are not familiar
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 003—(Family Engagement): Understand the role and importance of the family in supporting the learning and development of young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

27. A first-grade teacher uses a home survey to learn more about how students like to spend their time outside of school with their families. The teacher finds that students and their families value and appreciate a wide range of activities. The teacher could best use this information to support effective teaching of students from all families by taking which of the following approaches?

  1. asking students and their families to learn about and develop interests in activities unfamiliar to them
  2. requesting that members of each family visit during the school day to share interests with the class
  3. grouping students from similar family backgrounds together for interactive play and activities
  4. creating differentiated learning groups based on students' individual interests and strengths
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

Domain II—The Instructional Setting

Competency 004—(Social Skills, Emotional Development, and Behavior Support): Understand how to create positive environments and relationships that help develop interpersonal skills, autonomy, and initiative to explore and learn in young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

28. Four-year-olds Jessie and Simone have been quietly engaged in a center activity for a short time when the prekindergarten teacher observes the following interaction.

Jessie: (Exasperated) You have all the red cubes. I want some, too.

Simone: I'm making a red fire truck. You don't need them.

Jessie: It can have other colors, too. I want some red or I'm telling.

Simone: (Defiantly) Go ahead, I don't care.

The teacher walks over to the children in the center area. Which of the following actions would be most effective for the teacher to use to resolve this conflict?

  1. modeling active listening and relevant questioning to engage the children's participation in resolving the dispute equitably
  2. enforcing zero-tolerance rules for arguing and disrupting others to discourage the children from escalating their behavior
  3. providing the children with an alternative to this activity that is less desirable if they cannot resolve their dispute together
  4. directing the children to stop the activity and observe other students who have learned how to cooperate in centers
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

29. Kindergarten students are in their classroom science center exploring and sorting rocks. The teacher notices that the students are demonstrating difficulty sharing space and materials. The teacher can best promote the development of students' interpersonal skills by which of the following methods?

  1. redesigning the floor plan of the classroom centers to clearly delineate individual students' work spaces
  2. grouping students within centers who have demonstrated success working together
  3. pausing the activity to hold a discussion with the students about what the teacher has observed and to brainstorm solutions
  4. giving students a signal at frequent intervals to stop activities and review expectations
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

Competency 005—(The Instructional Setting): Understand how to create positive learning environments that promote the development and learning of young children in prekindergarten to grade 3.

30. A third-grade teacher wants to provide options for equitable perception of information to all students in the class. Based on principles of universal design for learning (UDL), which of the following actions would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. defining clear rules and high expectations for students' engagement and effort within the class
  2. building opportunities for student collaboration and partner work into the daily schedule
  3. focusing on individual student choice and autonomy in classroom lessons and activities
  4. providing students with multiple visual, auditory, and physical examples of curricular materials
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

31. A third-grade teacher has a goal of improving students' ability to transition successfully between activities. The teacher provides advance warning by ringing a bell at five minutes and at two minutes prior to the end of each activity. Which of the following statements best explains the rationale for the teacher's use of this strategy?

  1. This practice generally benefits only students who have difficulty with transitions.
  2. The teacher has established intervals of time to provide students with direct help in cleaning up.
  3. The teacher can observe transitions without having to verbally engage with the students.
  4. The practice provides a structure to transitions that can be scaffolded to students' needs.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

Domain III—Educating All Learners

Competency 006—(Differentiation Strategies in Planning and Practice): Understand how to identify and implement developmentally appropriate strategies and practices to effectively teach and engage young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

32. At the beginning of the school year, a third-grade teacher designs the layout of the classroom. The teacher considers incorporating a principle of universal design for learning (UDL) into the arrangement of the classroom, such as the placement of students' desks and chairs, work tables, and shelving units. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way for the teacher to incorporate a principle of UDL into the classroom layout?

  1. establishing flexible work spaces for students (e.g., places for individual and group work, quiet places)
  2. minimizing clutter to maintain an orderly and organized classroom
  3. storing work materials (e.g., pencils, notebooks) in areas of the classroom that are easily accessible
  4. creating ample space between rows of desks for students to briefly move around in and stretch during class transitions
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

33. Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Child Find obligations primarily affect young children in which of the following ways?

  1. building continuous public awareness, screening, and assessment intended to locate, identify, and evaluate as early as possible all young children with disabilities
  2. refining the type of instructional programs young children with unique learning differences receive
  3. redefining the terms of specific disabilities to increase the number of young children who qualify for special education services
  4. ensuring that all young children partake in an annual evaluation to determine those who are in need of special education or related services
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 007—(Culturally Responsive Practices): Understand how to identify and implement culturally responsive, developmentally appropriate practices to effectively teach and engage young children from prekindergarten to grade 3 across all content areas.

34. A prekindergarten child and the child's parents/guardians are English learners (ELs) at a beginning to intermediate level of English acquisition. The parents/guardians report to the child's teacher that they only speak English at home with their child, even though they have strong primary language skills, in order to promote their child's ability to learn English. Which of the following recommendations should the teacher give to advise the parents/guardians about their child's language acquisition?

  1. advising the parents/guardians about English learning resources within the community
  2. agreeing with the parents'/guardians' decision because it promotes the child's English language development
  3. providing information to the parents/guardians that skills in a primary language promote second language and literacy development
  4. encouraging the parents/guardians to support late bilingualism for the child to promote English acquisition before introducing a second language
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

35. A teacher carefully considers ways to recognize and address classroom practices that may contribute to disproportionate participation. The teacher has observed that male students are unintentionally called on more frequently than female students. The teacher also notices that male students are chosen by peers as team captains in cooperative learning groups more often than female students. Which of the following instructional techniques by the teacher would most effectively promote equitable classroom participation?

  1. assigning students alternating roles within activities to encourage participation
  2. using cold-call techniques to facilitate equal student participation
  3. providing incentives to increase students' motivation to participate
  4. selecting students who voluntarily participate to minimize discomfort
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

36. A second-grade teacher works to establish positive family–teacher relationships by engaging in the following actions regularly.

Despite using these strategies to engage families, the teacher feels that some families are still hesitant to participate in school activities and an educational dialogue. When conversing with some families about the concern, the teacher hears from one parent who describes his negative school experiences as a child, and suggests that other parents in the school may have had similar experiences, leaving them anxious about developing a relationship with teachers. The teacher contemplates this reasoning, and devises potential strategies for addressing this issue. Which of the following strategies would best support the teacher's goal to establish a positive family-teacher relationship?

  1. sending home a newsletter to families that highlights the benefits of a positive family–teacher relationship
  2. inviting families to participate individually in phone calls or classroom visits at times that are convenient for them
  3. recommending that families help their child with homework so that they are aware of what content is being covered in the class
  4. making a list of ways families can volunteer in the class and using dismissal time to encourage them to sign up
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Domain IV—Data-Driven Practice and Formal/Informal Assessment

Competency 008—(Developmentally Appropriate Assessment and Practice): Understand the types, selection, and uses of developmentally appropriate assessments and assessment practices to effectively support young children's learning in prekindergarten to grade 3.

37. Read a kindergarten teacher's anecdotal record below; then answer the question that follows.

  • Four kindergarten children, William, Beatrice, Grace, and Jorge, were playing on the play structure during recess.
  • Jorge explained to me that they were restaurant cooks.
  • Grace asked, "What do you want to eat?"
  • After I told them that I wanted pizza, salad, and ice cream, they each climbed up the ladders to the next level of the play structure and turned away from me to prepare their dishes.
  • William was able to climb up the ladder by lifting his right foot from the ground up and onto the next rung of the ladder and then pulling up his left leg, which he did repeatedly until he reached the top, always leading with his right leg.
  • Beatrice climbed the ladder starting with her right foot and then alternated feet up each rung of the ladder—left, right, left, right.
  • William jumped down to the ground to serve my "salad" and then climbed back up on the ladder the same way as he did the first time.

The teacher could most effectively use this observation for which of the following purposes?

  1. assessing Jorge's social skills with peers
  2. evaluating Beatrice's need for physical therapy
  3. determining Grace's oral language development
  4. documenting William's climbing and balance skills
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

38. Use the excerpt below from a kindergarten science lesson plan to answer the question that follows.

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Science Student Learning Objective Task Assessment Documentation/ Data Collection
Science (2) (C) The student is expected to collect data and make observations using simple tools. Students will look for trends in the weather based on data they observe and record for a month. Students will observe the weather daily and record findings on a calendar by drawing a sun, cloud, or raindrop symbol. Students marks the corresponding symbol on an individual calendar to accurately represent each day's weather. Collect students' calendars and compare entries and sums of each type of weather to master calendar.

Which of the following revisions to the lesson plan is needed to improve alignment with the student learning objective?

  1. changing the Assessment to "Students accurately count the total number of days with each type of weather during the month and describe the weather trends observed."
  2. changing the Documentation to "Students' calendars reflect an accurate record of the weather observed each day of the month."
  3. changing the Task to "Students use tools, including a rain gauge, to measure rainy days."
  4. changing the Knowledge/Skills notation to "Science (3) (B) The student will make predictions based on observable patterns in nature."
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 009—(Progress Monitoring and Data-Driven Instructional Practice): Understand how to design, implement, and evaluate learning experiences and instruction in order to promote development and learning of all students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

39. Use the record below of prekindergarten children's activity choices to answer the question that follows.

Children's Activity-Time Choices

A - Art/Painting     B - Blocks     C - Computer       D - Dramatic Play
E - Engineering/Interlocking Plastic Bricks     G - Games/Puzzles at Tables    S - Sand/Water/Media Table

Child Observed Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri
Child #1 B B B D B B B B D B
Child #2 A A D D A D A A D A
Child #3 A E E E E E E E E A
Child #4 G G G G G G E G G G
Child #5 S D S S S S S D S S

The teacher could most effectively use these data to make developmentally appropriate decisions in which of the following ways?

  1. developing strategies to encourage children to explore a wider range of activities
  2. reporting to children's families the types of activities their child enjoys during various times of the school day
  3. sharing information about which children choose to play together and why they choose these peers
  4. providing families with evidence that their child is learning through play activities
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

40. A kindergarten teacher uses an informal checklist assessment to identify students' strengths and needs in relation to their comprehension skills of text they have heard read aloud, in accordance with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Kindergarten English Language Arts and Reading (ELAR). Below is a completed checklist assessment for a student in the class.

Read-Aloud Comprehension Skills Skills Attained
Retells important facts in the text.  blank
Makes connections to the text. checked
Generates questions about the text.  blank
Answers questions about the text. checked
Uses titles and illustrations to make predictions about the text. checked

Which of the following teacher activities would best address an area of need for the student?

  1. modeling for the student how to summarize text with puppets representing characters from the story
  2. pre-teaching unknown vocabulary from the text to the student
  3. providing the student with sentence frames to relate to the text read aloud
  4. posing to the student inferential questions based on picture clues from the text
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Domain V—Learning Across the Curriculum

Competency 010—(English Language Arts and Social Studies): Understand the foundational principles, concepts, and methods in English language arts and social studies to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

41. A prekindergarten teacher wants to build children's awareness of the roles and responsibilities of family, school, and community helpers. Which of the following instructional strategies would best support the teacher's goal?

  1. assisting children in creating a class book about school and community workers
  2. inviting community volunteers and children's families into the class to share about their jobs, customs, and traditions
  3. using photographs and illustrations to discuss with children how people are alike and different
  4. encouraging children to build a model town (e.g., homes, public buildings) using blocks
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 012—(Science and Technology Applications): Understand the foundational principles, concepts, and methods of teaching science and technology applications to provide developmentally appropriate instruction to students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

42. Which of the following learning experiences would best support first-grade students in developing an understanding of the life cycle of animals?

  1. researching high-interest animals and comparing animals' resemblance to their offspring
  2. going on an outdoor investigation to identify animals in their habitats and discuss how their habitats provide food and shelter
  3. reading illustrated books about butterflies migrating south during winter months to ensure survival
  4. observing and recording observations of a tadpole hatching and metamorphosing into a frog
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

43. A kindergarten teacher has been working with students to develop their awareness that animals have basic needs, including food, water, and shelter, in accordance with Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Kindergarten Science. The teacher would like to further students' learning by supporting their exploration of real-world issues related to this topic, such as animal endangerment, by using technology, in accordance with TEKS for Kindergarten Technology Applications. Which of the following uses of an educational resource would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. allowing students to play an online game in which they can learn vocabulary related to endangered species
  2. supporting students in collecting information about endangered species' needs from developmentally appropriate Web sites
  3. asking students to draw a picture of an endangered animal to submit to the Web site of an organization that protects endangered species
  4. assigning small groups of students an endangered animal to write about using word processing software
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 013—(Fine Arts, Physical Education, and Health): Understand foundational skills, concepts, and methods to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for fine arts, physical education, and health to students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

44. A third-grade teacher is developing a lesson to promote students' abilities to identify and categorize musical instruments as brass, string, woodwind, or percussion. Which of the following technology resources would most effectively support students' abilities to categorize instruments by sound?

  1. an interactive Web site where different musical instruments can be explored
  2. an online video of a concert performed by a full orchestra of musical instruments
  3. a multimedia presentation followed by a class discussion about musical instruments
  4. an audio recording of musical instruments being played in isolation
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Clustered Questions

Use the information below to answer the two questions that follow.

A third-grade teacher conducts the following mathematics activity with students, in accordance with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Grade 3 Mathematics.

  • Announce to the class the need to prepare the classroom to meet with their kindergarten book buddies. Each third grader has two book buddies.
  • Ask students to work in pairs to determine how many chairs would be needed to seat their class of 24 third graders, their book buddies, and three teachers.
  • Ask student pairs to solve the problem using any method that they want, but remind them that they need to explain to the class how they got their answer.
  • As the pairs work, walk around the room to observe their progress and work.

Teacher reflection notes on activity:

I noted that three of the pairs made mistakes. At the end of the activity, I did not call on those three pairs to share their work, because I expected that they would probably realize their mistakes while listening to the explanations the other pairs shared. I randomly called on pairs who got the correct answer. These pairs shared a variety of approaches, including drawing pictures, making tallies, using models, and graphing.

Competency 011—(Mathematics): Understand foundational principles, concepts, and methods in mathematics to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

45. The teacher's actions in this lesson demonstrate a strength related to which of the following instructional principles?

  1. basing students' work on a meaningful, real-world problem
  2. treating all correct solutions as equally valuable
  3. focusing on the strategy that would be most useful
  4. assessing students' understanding of classmates' methods
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 011—(Mathematics): Understand foundational principles, concepts, and methods in mathematics to provide developmentally appropriate instruction for students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

46. Which of the following actions by the teacher would most effectively strengthen this mathematics activity?

  1. encouraging students to work independently instead of in partner groups
  2. assessing students' understanding of each of their classmates' methods for solving the problem
  3. giving individual attention to student pairs experiencing challenges before turning to the whole-group activity
  4. focusing all students to complete the problem using one strategy that would be most useful
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A third-grade teacher created a unit focused on organisms and environments in accordance with Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Grade 3. The teacher and the students placed six labeled cups, each containing one plant, on a windowsill in direct sunlight for two weeks. Three cups contained bean plants and three cups contained cactus plants. The teacher and the students created three different environments for the plants, and each environment contained one bean plant and one cactus plant. The environments varied based on how often the plants were watered. Students drew pictures of their observations of the plants in each of the three environments at the end of two weeks.

Bean Plants and Cactus Plants After Two Weeks
Name: Jody + Mark
Environment 1In environment 1 the bean sprout is long and relatively straight. The cactus sprout by comparison is plump and diminutive. Environment 2In environment 2 the bean sprout tilts towards the right and is discernibly smaller than the bean sprout in environment 1. The cactus sprout is noticeably larger than the cactus sprout in environment 1 and is of comparable height with the bean sprout in environment 2 Environment 3 In environment 3 the bean sprout lies directly on the soil, while the cactus sprout is taller and thicker than the other two cactus sprouts and features a new growth.
Environment 1 Environment 2 Environment 3
  • Sun and water
  • Watered once daily
  • Sun and water
  • Watered once every other day
  • Sun and water
  • Watered once a week

Competency 012—(Science and Technology Applications): Understand the foundational principles, concepts, and methods of teaching science and technology applications to provide developmentally appropriate instruction to students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

47. Given the results at the end of two weeks, this inquiry best promotes students' understanding of which of the following phenomena?

  1. life cycles of organisms in an environment
  2. the flow of energy between organisms in an environment
  3. physical changes that affect organisms in an environment
  4. the structures and functions of organisms that help them survive in an environment
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

Competency 006—(Differentiation Strategies in Planning and Practice): Understand how to identify and implement developmentally appropriate strategies and practices to effectively teach and engage young children from prekindergarten to grade 3.

48. Students' abilities to draw accurate conclusions from the inquiry experience is best supported by their prerequisite knowledge in which of the following areas?

  1. types of plants
  2. characteristics of healthy plants
  3. how plants make food
  4. life spans of plants
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 012—(Science and Technology Applications): Understand the foundational principles, concepts, and methods of teaching science and technology applications to provide developmentally appropriate instruction to students in prekindergarten to grade 3.

49. At the end of the two-week observation, the teacher plans to use a higher-level questioning technique to encourage students to make conclusions about what they have observed during the activity. Which of the following questions would best support the teacher's goal?

  1. Why did environmental conditions lead to different results for the bean and cactus plants?
  2. How are the three cactus plants different at the end of the experiment?
  3. Which environment was best for the cactus plants and for the bean plants?
  4. What were the environmental differences the pairs of cactus and bean plants experienced?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 008—(Developmentally Appropriate Assessment and Practice): Understand the types, selection, and uses of developmentally appropriate assessments and assessment practices to effectively support young children's learning in prekindergarten to grade 3.

50. Which of the following additional student activities would most effectively support the teacher in assessing students' abilities to apply what they have learned from the inquiry?

  1. growing a third type of plant in the classroom and comparing its growth to the bean and cactus plants
  2. creating a diagram of the cactus and bean plants and labeling the plants' parts
  3. planting additional seeds independently at home and observing the outcome
  4. predicting and explaining in which environment other types of plants would be most successful
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because asking students to generate and explain predictions based on evidence from observations would be the assessment practice that would most effectively evaluate acquisition, application, and integration of concepts. Options A and C are incorrect because growing an additional plant or growing additional seeds at home would not require students to apply or integrate learned concepts, although these activities may expand their knowledge. Option B is incorrect because creating a labeled diagram of the plants would address different learning objectives than the inquire activity and therefore would not support the teacher in assessing students' learning.

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