Skip to main content

Preparation Manual

Print this page

Section 4: Sample Selected-Response Questions
English Language Arts and Reading 4–8 (217)

Expand All Answers | Collapse All Answers

This section presents some sample exam questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the exam. To demonstrate how each competency may be assessed, sample questions are accompanied by the competency that they measure. While studying, you may wish to read the competency before and after you consider each sample question. Please note that the competency statements do not appear on the actual exam.

The sample questions are included to illustrate the formats and types of questions you will see on the exam; however, your performance on the sample questions should not be viewed as a predictor of your performance on the actual exam.

Selected-Response Questions with Rationales

Each sample exam question here includes the correct answer and a rationale for each answer option.

Domain I—Foundations of Reading

Competency 001—(Foundations of Teaching Reading): Understand research-based, evidence-based, and culturally relevant foundational concepts, principles, and best practices related to reading instruction and assessment.

1. A teacher notices that while students generally understand what they are reading and are able to retell or summarize texts, many students do not understand the texts at a deeper level. Which of the following techniques would be most appropriate for the teacher to use to promote all students' deeper comprehension?

  1. leading the students in a whole-group reading of the texts followed by a group discussion of the reading
  2. showing the students how to use an outline to take notes on the texts and then use the notes to write text responses
  3. providing the students with adequate background knowledge to engage in text discussions and respond to higher-level questioning
  4. having the students respond to the texts by creating a related project, such as a series of drawings or a multimedia presentation
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because reading comprehension skills are enhanced when students have prior knowledge of the topics about which they are reading. The more students know in advance about a topic, the easier it is for them to read a text, understand it, and retain the information. If students do not have the prior knowledge necessary for understanding a text's topic, the teacher should activate and build students' background knowledge through discussions and visual aids. Students are then able to have a deeper understanding of the text and have richer discussions, accessing higher-level thinking. Option A is incorrect because, while whole-group instruction is useful for introducing a skill or topic, it is not the most effective teaching method to determine all students' understanding and knowledge about a topic. Often during whole-group instruction, only a few students will respond while other students may not have a deep level of understanding. Option B is incorrect because, while showing students how to use an outline and use the outline to write a response can help students process texts they read better, this practice does not necessarily mean students are thinking critically and using higher-order thinking skills to understand the texts at a deeper level. Option D is incorrect because having students complete a project may show their creativity and their ability to connect to a text, but this does not necessarily provide the adequate background knowledge needed to engage students in a deeper understanding of the texts.

2. In the first weeks of class, a fourth-grade teacher gives students a reading and writing assignment. As the teacher walks around the room monitoring the students, the teacher identifies possible signs of dysgraphia. Which of the following student behaviors is an indicator of dysgraphia?

  1. confusing the order of letters
  2. having difficulty following a series of directions
  3. writing illegibly
  4. struggling with reading tasks
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because writing illegibly is a symptom of dysgraphia, a neurological disorder of written expression that affects students' ability to write letters and articulate thoughts on paper. Although this symptom may occur along with dyslexia, as both dyslexia and dysgraphia are language learning disabilities, students with dysgraphia have difficulty with letter formation and letter and word spacing, and they often cannot read what they have written. Option A is incorrect because confusing the order of letters is a speech-to-sound processing issue, which is a symptom of dyslexia, an impaired reading disability that involves students having difficulty identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words, leading to reading issues. Option B is incorrect because difficulty following multi-step directions is not an indicator of dysgraphia. Students that are unable to follow multi-step directions may have challenges with working memory, auditory processing disorder, or attention deficit disorder. Option D is incorrect because dysgraphia is a writing disability, rather than a reading disability. Students struggling with reading tasks may have difficulty reading, comprehending, and answering questions about a text but may still be able to write legibly.

Competency 002—(Foundational Reading Skills): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to the development of foundational reading skills, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level foundational reading skills.

3. A fourth-grade student reads words from a grade-level word list while the teacher records the student's pronunciation of the words on the chart below.

Target Word Student's Pronunciation
accent ak-sent-ed
accuse ik-skyus
legend leg-end
magnet mag-net
rustled rust-ed

Given these results, the teacher plans to promote the student's letter-sound relationship skills by providing opportunities for practice in:

  1. recognizing and accurately reading high-frequency words.
  2. decoding words from left to right using letter-sound analysis.
  3. identifying and taking apart two- and three-syllable words.
  4. recognizing consonants that sometimes but do not always represent a sound.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the student does not seem to recognize that some consonants do not represent a sound within certain words. The student is confused by the silent-e rule in the word accuse, pronouncing the use as us. The silent-e rule is when the letter e at the end of a word makes the middle vowel a long vowel sound (e.g., kite, tote). The student also mispronounces the word rustle, not realizing that when the t and l appear together in rustled the t is silent. Additionally, the student is confused about the different sounds made by the letters c and g. The soft sound for the letter c sounds like the s in sad and for the letter g it sound like the j in jug. Usually, when a c or g is followed by an e, i, or y the sound will be soft, but if the c or g is followed by another letter the sound will be hard. In the word accuse, the student pronounces the second c as a soft c sound when it should have been the hard c sound, and the g in legend was pronounced with the hard g sound instead of the soft g sound. Option A is incorrect because the given words are not considered high frequency words. Examples of fourth-grade high frequency words are problem, complete, and sure. The words on the chart are considered Tier 2 and Tier 3 words. Tier 2 words are multiple-meaning words and words that are frequent enough that most native speakers may know what they mean but need some instruction to understand the meaning completely (e.g., absurd, compare). Tier 3 words are central to building knowledge and conceptual understanding in academic domains (e.g., algorithm, hyperbole). Option B is incorrect because the student is decoding words by syllables and not letter by letter. The student has already shown the ability to decode beyond letter by letter. Option C is incorrect because, given the evidence in the word list, the student is already able to take apart multisyllabic words and has separated each word into the correct syllables.

4. A fifth-grade student is having difficulty understanding multiple-meaning words in a text. Which of the following techniques would likely be most effective for the student to use to distinguish between the different word meanings?

  1. looking up words in a dictionary
  2. writing examples of their own
  3. discussing the words with a classmate
  4. making use of context clues
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because using context clues can help the student determine which meaning of a multiple-meaning word is being used in a text. When using context clues, the student may use the meaning of other words in a sentence or a picture on the page to help them identify the correct meaning of the word. Sometimes when a reader finds a new word, an example might be found nearby that helps explain the meaning of the unknown word. When using context to determine the correct meaning of a multiple-meaning word, the student can determine which use of the word would be appropriate in the given instance. Option A and Option B are incorrect because these strategies will help the student learn the one word they are looking up or creating examples for, but they do not help the student find ways to figure out the correct meaning of other multiple-meaning words independently when they come across them in reading. Option C is incorrect because discussion with others will help with the understanding of the given word, but discussion does not support the student when reading independently or when there is not adequate time for students to discuss words together.

Competency 003—(Word Analysis Skills and Reading Fluency): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to the development of word analysis skills and fluency, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level word analysis skills and reading fluency.

5. During word analysis instruction, a fourth-grade teacher shows students how to recognize and form irregular plurals that are created by changing the final letter or letters of the base word (e.g., fungus/fungi, medium/media). Which of the following strategies best shows a systematic approach to this word analysis concept?

  1. asking students to circle the endings of words with irregular plurals that they find as they are reading texts
  2. asking students to compare words that have regular plural forms to those that have irregular plural forms
  3. having students practice adding endings to other similar words that have irregular plurals after receiving instruction from the teacher
  4. having students practice replacing a final f or fe with v before adding -es to other words that have irregular plural rules, such as leaves and knives
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because systematic instruction is an evidence-based, planned sequence of instruction. In this example the teacher has already modeled for students how to recognize and form irregular plurals that are created by changing the final letter or letters of the base word. As a best next step, students need to practice what they have learned. Option A is incorrect because having students circle endings of words with irregular plurals is not a systematic approach since students are not able to put into practice what their teacher has just modeled; rather, it is having students complete an activity that does not show their understanding of how and why endings are changed when a base word becomes an irregular plural word. Option B is incorrect because students are asked to identify and compare word endings of regular and irregular plural words. Students are not internalizing the learning of irregular plurals. Option D is incorrect because students are practicing only one irregular plural pattern and are doing so without any teacher instruction or modeling. A systematic approach would have a sequence of teacher instruction followed by an activity that practices the instruction. Then the teacher would move on to teaching additional irregular plural rules.

6. As an intervention for students with reading challenges, a teacher displays a map of Texas and shows students video clips of Francisco Coronado's search to find gold and other tales of buried treasure in Texas. The teacher leads a discussion about how the tales may have affected settlement of Texas, acknowledging the students' comments as they are made. Then the teacher gives the students a text about Coronado to read. Which of the following evidence-based statements best reflects the primary purpose of providing this type of meaning-based literacy activity in interventions?

  1. Educators should reinforce students' efforts toward improving reading skills through the use of praise.
  2. Students should be provided with high-quality reading materials that integrate a variety of content areas.
  3. Students' reading comprehension skills are enhanced when they have prior knowledge of topics about which they read.
  4. Diagrams are one of the most helpful tools to use to establish contextual knowledge before students read a text.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the more students know about a given topic they will read in a text, the easier it is for them to read, understand, and retain the information. The literacy activities in this scenario are activating students' prior knowledge and developing students' background knowledge about Coronado's expeditions and how they affected the settlement of Texas. By activating students' prior knowledge, the teacher discovers what the students know about the topic and then builds additional knowledge the students will need in order to learn and access the new content. Developing students' background knowledge helps construct the connections between existing knowledge and new knowledge. Option A is incorrect because praise may help motivate and engage students to read if it is meaningful and appropriate, but it does not increase students' knowledge of a topic. Option B is incorrect because, although students do need access to high-quality reading material for literacy development, they require background knowledge and instruction to help support their comprehension of the reading materials used for the intervention, which is what the teacher is building. Option D is incorrect because although diagrams can help build the students' background knowledge, they are not the only tools that can be used and may not be the most helpful means of doing so—building vocabulary and showing pictures are likely more effective in building background knowledge.

Competency 004—(Vocabulary Development): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to vocabulary development, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level vocabulary knowledge and skills.

7. Which of the following sets of steps would best help students analyze context when they encounter unfamiliar words?

  1. stopping when a word is unfamiliar, rereading the sentence to look for clues about the word's meaning, and then substituting the meaning to see if it makes sense
  2. stopping periodically during reading, asking what the passage means, and then finding and analyzing the unfamiliar words
  3. making a list of common affixes, identifying the meaning of the affixes, and then making a list of words with each affix
  4. making a list of unknown words in the reading, using the dictionary to find the definition, and then determining which definition fits in the sentence
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because when students stop at an unfamiliar word and use the sentence clues around the word to figure out its meaning, they are analyzing the context of the word within text. Students can then use this analysis to determine possible meanings and then go back to reread, substitute a possible meaning, and check to see which new meaning makes sense within the sentence. Option B is incorrect because stopping while reading, questioning the material read, and finding and analyzing unfamiliar words promotes comprehension, but students are not using context to figure out the meaning of the unknown words. Option C is incorrect because while knowing the meaning of commonly used affixes helps students understand complex word meanings through structural analysis, if students rely only on a list of common affixes they may be unable to analyze textual context to determine the meaning of the word. Option D is incorrect because when students are using the dictionary to find the definition of the unknown words, they are using available resources and not context clues to determine the meaning of the words.

8. A seventh-grade teacher is preparing a lesson that will promote students' ability to use and understand the meaning of various antonyms and synonyms to develop comprehension of a text. Which of the following activities would be most appropriate for this purpose?

  1. asking students to match words together that are antonym and synonym pairs
  2. having students create books of antonyms along with their synonyms
  3. teaching students to recognize context clues that indicate whether words are antonyms or synonyms
  4. having students identify antonym and synonym pairs within a text
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because in this activity the students are learning how to use context clues to determine if words are antonyms or synonyms and to comprehend text. Since antonyms are words with opposite meanings and synonyms are words with similar meanings, students can determine meaning by looking for words within a text that show an opposite situation or restate an idea. Students can also use signal words or phrases—but and however may indicate an antonym will be used, while also known as or in other words may indicate a synonym will be used. Option A is incorrect because while this activity is having students show they understand the meaning of antonyms and synonyms, it does not require students to use that knowledge to deepen their understanding of a text. Option B is incorrect because the students are creating a book with synonyms and antonyms in isolation. They are not using the specific words in context to increase their comprehension of a text. Option D is incorrect because identifying antonym and synonym pairs in a text will not increase students' ability to use the words to help understand the meaning of the text.

Domain II—Text Comprehension and Analysis

Competency 005—(Reading Comprehension Development): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to the development of reading comprehension, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level reading comprehension strategies.

9. Seventh-grade students read a fiction text in which important social issues are revealed through the book's setting, main character, and plot. The students also read a recent newspaper article that addresses some of the same social issues. The teacher asks the students to write a personal response to one or more of the social issues reflected in the texts. According to best practices, which of the following strategies would be most appropriate and effective for the teacher to use to prepare the students for this task?

  1. displaying writing samples from previous students based on the assignment and critiquing the samples with the class
  2. engaging in a timed writing session in which students write their thoughts about one or more of the social issues
  3. having students organize their thinking for the assignment by talking to a classmate about what they might say in their writing
  4. showing and discussing a graphic organizer that presents the social issues next to the key ideas related to each issue
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because students are allowed processing time to verbally express and organize their ideas with a classmate before writing. This practice helps to ease students into writing and might remove some apprehension students have at the beginning of a writing activity. Option A is incorrect because in this option the students are practicing editing writing pieces. This is not preparing the students to think of or strengthen writing ideas. Editing is a step in the writing process that should be completed after students have a written draft. Option B is incorrect because a timed writing response is not considered a best practice for this scenario. A timed writing piece is generally used to support fluency in writing or for assessment. Option D is incorrect because the students' assignment is to write a personal response. The graphic organizer described helps organize the text, but this strategy does not incorporate the aspect of writing personal responses.

10. Which of the following scenarios provides the best example of responsive teaching?

  1. A teacher assesses students' performance as they engage in activities such as reflective journal writing and group discussions to see how their learning progresses.
  2. A teacher regularly assesses students' reading by observing what skills the students have learned in order to identify specific skills to reinforce.
  3. A teacher encourages and guides students to generate comprehension by constructing relationships between concepts of reading materials and their experiences.
  4. A teacher observes and records students' reading behaviors between two different intervals of time to check for reading development growth.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the teacher's process of regularly assessing students to identify the skills that need to be taught is responsive teaching—using formative assessments through observing and analyzing students' reading behaviors in order to inform the next steps to take that will reinforce students' development of skills. Responsive teaching provides differentiated instruction to meet each student's individual learning needs. Option A is incorrect because in this scenario the teacher is assessing and monitoring students' progress; however, the teacher is not using students' learning performance to adjust the skills being taught. Option C is incorrect because the teacher is not using data to drive the instruction. This is a good strategy for students to use to increase their comprehension skills, but it is not responsive teaching as the students' responses to learning are not determining what will be taught. Option D is incorrect because, while the teacher is assessing the students' growth, the teacher is not using the data gathered to differentiate the instruction for individual students and is therefore not using responsive teaching.

Competency 007—(Reading Informational and Argumentative Texts): Understand the elements and characteristics of informational and argumentative texts, analyze how authors use these elements and characteristics to achieve specific purposes, and demonstrate knowledge of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to engage in text-based analyses of complex informational and argumentative texts.

11. Students in a fifth-grade English language arts class discuss an informational article they have read on the topic of plastic pollution. A transcript of the discussion appears below.

Teacher: What did the article make you think about?

Student 1: The ways plastic can hurt all kinds of animals.

Student 2: We should get rid of all plastic! But that would be hard.

Teacher: You're right—getting rid of all plastic would be hard. What did you know about plastic pollution before you read the article?

Student 3: I knew that some kinds of plastic could be recycled. At home, we reuse plastic food containers, and we put plastic bottles in the recycling bin.

Student 2: I saw a video about how some animals accidentally swallow plastic, and that it makes them sick or even kills them.

Teacher: What new or surprising information did you learn from the article?

Student 4: This was new—and scary: I learned that by 2050, there might be three times as much plastic in the ocean. Whoa!

Student 1: I learned some tips for using less plastic, like using cloth bags for my school lunches.

Student 2: Yes! I'm going to pay closer attention to how much plastic my family and I use.

The teacher's approach in the class discussion is most clearly intended to promote the students' ability to:

  1. synthesize background knowledge with new information.
  2. infer what the author implies but does not state directly.
  3. analyze how the author achieves a specific purpose.
  4. summarize the text's central idea and supporting details.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the teacher's questions invite students to compare their prior knowledge about plastic pollution to new or surprising information in the article. This approach encourages the students to consider how the information presented in the article affects their ideas about plastic pollution. Option B is incorrect because the teacher's questions do not invite the students to make inferences based on information provided in the article. This approach would be appropriate if the teacher wanted the students to understand an implied message. Option C is incorrect because the teacher does not ask students to identify the author's purpose or analyze how the author achieves that purpose. After the initial discussion about information provided in the article, it would be appropriate for the teacher to ask about the author's reason for presenting this information and ask students to examine how the author achieves this purpose. Option D is incorrect because the teacher's questions are focused on facts presented in the article rather than the central idea and supporting details. After discussing the information presented in the article, the students would be prepared to identify and summarize the central idea, as well as to identify details in the article that support the central idea.

12. A sixth-grade teacher plans a series of questions for a class discussion about an informational text the students have read. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate for promoting the students' evaluative thinking about the author's craft?

  1. In what ways is the article similar to or different from other articles you have read on the same topic?
  2. How did the author capture and hold your interest throughout the article?
  3. What clues from the text help you know that the article is nonfiction rather than fiction?
  4. What new information did you learn about the topic from reading the article?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because asking how the author captured and held the students' interest encourages the students to consider how the author achieves a specific purpose in the text. The question develops students' evaluative thinking skills by asking them to reflect on how the author's craft affected their level of engagement with the text. Option A is incorrect because the question asks the students to compare the article to others rather than to evaluate the author's use of craft in the article. Option C is incorrect because identifying the text's genre characteristics does not require evaluative thinking. Option D is incorrect because identifying new information, without analyzing how the author presents that information, would not engage students' evaluative thinking about the author's craft.

Domain III—Oral and Written Communication

Competency 008—(Composition): Understand the characteristics of various genres of written text; apply knowledge of strategies for developing well-organized, engaging, written texts that achieve specific purposes for specific audiences; and apply knowledge of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to develop well-organized, engaging, written texts that achieve specific purposes for specific audiences.

13. Read the excerpt below from the first draft of the introduction of an argumentative essay; then answer the question that follows.

In education today, a lot of teaching is focused on math, science, and technology. Some schools have stopped teaching music and art in favor of math and science. This is a big mistake. There is room for a wide variety of classes in schools.

A sixth-grade teacher plans to include the excerpt in a lesson on using evidence to support a claim. Which of the following student activities would be most appropriate for the teacher to facilitate during the lesson?

  1. suggesting reasons for the focus on math, science, and technology
  2. expanding on the benefits of having art and music in the curriculum
  3. paraphrasing the final two sentences of the draft
  4. writing arguments in favor of an alternative curriculum
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the first draft does not explain why replacing music and art with math, science, and technology in schools is a "big mistake." Expanding on this idea would develop students' ability to use evidence to support a claim, thereby strengthening an argument. Option A is incorrect because suggesting reasons for the focus on math, science, and technology would address a counterargument rather than provide evidence that supports the claim that schools should include a wide variety of classes in the curriculum. Option C is incorrect because while paraphrasing the first two sentences of the draft would help the students understand the claim, doing so would not produce supporting evidence to support the claim. This activity would be more appropriate for developing students' ability to comprehend an argument than for developing their ability to write an argument. Option D is incorrect because writing arguments in favor of an alternative curriculum would be more appropriate as a follow-up activity to gauge students' understanding of the lesson on using evidence to support a claim.

14. Read the excerpt below from the first draft of a response to a novel; then answer the question that follows.

All the characters in the book were appealing, although Riley's bumbling cluelessness seemed cartoonish at times. Still, he added an essential dash of humor to the story. Ana reminded me of my older sister, who is also brilliant with a touch of arrogance. start underline Then there was Albert, who was quiet and thoughtful and ended up being the hero who surprised not only the other characters but readers. end underline

A seventh-grade teacher plans to use the excerpt as a model during a lesson on revision strategies. Which of the following revised versions of the underlined sentence would offer the best example of how to revise for coherence and clarity?

  1. Surprising to the characters and readers that quiet and thoughtful Albert became the unexpected hero.
  2. Albert was the hero who surprised everyone, including the readers, because he was so quiet and thoughtful.
  3. Quiet and thoughtful Albert surprises fellow characters and readers alike by becoming the hero.
  4. When quiet, thoughtful Albert turns out to be the hero, he surprises his fellow characters and readers.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the revised sentence uses a subordinate clause to clearly convey the idea that readers are surprised by Albert being the hero. In the revised sentence, omitting the phrase "Then there was" focuses the sentence on the character traits that seem at odds with his heroism. Option A is incorrect because its ambiguity gives the appearance of ungrammaticality. Option B is incorrect because the revised sentence suggests that Albert had always been a hero, but his quiet and thoughtfulness were surprising, whereas the original sentence conveys the opposite idea, that Albert had always been quiet and thoughtful, and the hero role was new. Option D is incorrect because the sentence can be interpreted as meaning that Albert only becomes the hero when he is quiet. The revised sentence also erroneously suggests that Albert is both a character and a reader ("his fellow characters and readers").

Competency 009—(Inquiry and Research): Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for conducting focused inquiry and research and presenting the results in an appropriate, responsible, and ethical manner and of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to conduct focused inquiry and research and present the results in an appropriate, responsible, and ethical manner.

15. A group of sixth-grade students is planning a presentation about the water supply in El Paso, Texas. The students have generated the following research question.

Why are some people concerned about El Paso's water supply?

Which of the following questions would best help the group refine their research question?

  1. What freshwater sources contribute to El Paso's water supply?
  2. How has El Paso's water supply changed over the past 50 years?
  3. What environmental policies affect El Paso's water supply?
  4. How well does El Paso's water supply meet the needs of local residents?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the original research question refers to an unspecified group of people who are worried about El Paso's water supply. By focusing on the needs of residents, the students can investigate specific reasons for concern from the perspective of the people directly affected by problems in the water supply. Option A is incorrect because identifying fresh water sources that contribute to El Paso's water supply does not require the students to explore reasons for concern about the water supply. The scope of this question is too narrow. Option B is incorrect because exploring how El Paso's water supply has changed in the past 50 years would broaden the scope of inquiry in a way that would lead students to a wide range of information that might be irrelevant to the students' original question. Option C is incorrect because investigating environmental policies that affect El Paso's water supply would limit the scope of the original inquiry to environmental policies that affect the water supply, while concerns about the water supply would most likely not all be related to environmental policies.

16. Before seventh-grade students begin a research project, the teacher provides criteria for evaluating online sources. Which of the following approaches would be most effective in further promoting the students' ability to evaluate online sources?

  1. providing guidelines for conducting efficient advanced keyword searches
  2. demonstrating how to locate bibliographies on particular subjects or subject areas
  3. discussing ways to supplement online research with interviews and surveys
  4. introducing basic principles for considering the authority and reputation of a source
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because students who are doing online research need the foundational skills for evaluating the accuracy and reliability of sources. Because unverified information is commonly found on the Web, students should know the basic principles for examining the authority and reputation of online sources. Option A is incorrect because conducting advanced keyword searches does not filter out Web pages that have unreliable information. This approach would develop students' computer literacy skills rather than their skills for evaluating online sources. Option B is incorrect because locating bibliographies is a skill not unique to online research. This approach would primarily develop students' ability to search and organize sources rather than to evaluate them. Option C is incorrect because before students supplement online research with interviews and surveys, they need to evaluate the credibility and reliability of online sources. 

Competency 010—(Listening and Speaking): Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for critical listening and collaborative speaking and of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' skills in critical listening and collaborative speaking, including using differentiation strategies that are culturally and academically appropriate for all students.

17. An English language arts teacher is preparing guidelines for public speaking for use by students. To avoid potential cultural insensitivity, the teacher should eliminate which of the following guidelines from the list?

  1. Make eye contact with several individuals in the audience.
  2. Avoid reading your notes word for word during the speech.
  3. Practice delivering your speech until you feel confident.
  4. If you get nervous, slow down a bit and take a full breath.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because of the varied cultural significance of eye contact. While making eye contact may be a sign of confidence or politeness in some cultures, it may indicate disrespect or disingenuousness in other cultures. Additionally, some students may have personal reasons for being uncomfortable making eye contact. Option B is incorrect because there is no clear link between cultural insensitivity and reading notes during a speech. Option C is incorrect because practicing a speech to build confidence is not directly related to cultural sensitivity. Option D is incorrect because slowing down and taking a full breath while nervous is not directly related to cultural sensitivity.

Domain IV—Educating All Learners and Professional Practice

Competency 011—(Differentiation Strategies in Planning and Practice): Understand how to identify and implement developmentally and culturally appropriate strategies and data-driven practices to effectively teach and engage all learners.

18. Read the excerpt below from the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educators; then answer the question that follows.

(3) Ethical Conduct Toward Students.

Standard 3.9. The educator shall refrain from inappropriate communication with a student or minor, including, but not limited to, electronic communication such as cell phone, text messaging, email, instant messaging, blogging, or other social network communication. Factors that may be considered in assessing whether the communication is inappropriate include, but are not limited to:

a. The nature, purpose, timing, and amount of the communication;
b. The subject matter of the communication;
c. Whether the communication was made openly, or the educator attempted to conceal the communication.

An eighth-grade teacher has assigned a project in which students will examine the history of baseball and ways it has impacted American culture. The teacher would like to communicate with students regarding writing assignments and research activities in conjunction with this project. Given the information provided, which of the following actions by the teacher would be the most appropriate way to use technology in accordance with Standard 3.9?

  1. texting students each night to find out if they are able to understand and complete their homework
  2. messaging a student about meeting at a coffee shop after school to review a draft of an essay
  3. asking students for their cell phone numbers at the beginning of the school year
  4. e-mailing a student a response to a question about how to correctly cite a quote from a baseball player
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because giving feedback through school e-mail during proper hours about schoolwork-related questions is appropriate. Teachers should utilize their school e-mail accounts when communicating with students so that there is no confusion about the purpose of the correspondence. Option A is incorrect because, according to the Code of Ethics, contacting students nightly is considered inappropriate, as this practice violates "the amount of the communication" factor. Texting could also be considered personal contact, and students could confuse this form of communication as social rather than school-related. It would also be unclear whether the teacher was communicating with the students openly or is concealing the communication. Option B is incorrect because meeting a student outside of school hours and off school property could be viewed as inappropriate, and it would be unclear if the teacher was communicating with the student openly or concealing the communication. When corresponding and meeting with a student, the teacher should make sure that there is no question as to the intention. Option C is incorrect because the teacher should not be contacting students by cell phone, so asking for their phone numbers is not appropriate. The teacher should communicate with students via school e-mail outside of school to make it clear the teacher is communicating openly rather than concealing the communication.

19. A fourth-grade teacher develops a series of questions as part of a thematic reading unit on the seasons for a class. Which of the following strategies should the teacher use to effectively apply universal design for learning (UDL) guidelines while gathering information from students about their prior knowledge on the topic?

  1. projecting the questions accompanied by symbols and pictures and having the students respond by speaking or writing
  2. distributing a handout with the questions for the students to read independently and answer in writing, using a dictionary if needed
  3. asking the students to use hand gestures to act out their answers to the questions the teacher is asking them
  4. having a representative group of students respond verbally to the questions while the other students use gestures to express approval of the sample group's responses
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the material is presented in a way that promotes most students' understanding of what is being asked, and they are given a choice in how to respond to the questions. Universal design for learning (UDL) is an approach to teaching that attempts to meet the needs of every student within a classroom. This approach provides a way of teaching that seeks to help all students have an equal opportunity to succeed by offering flexibility in the ways students access material, engage with the material, and show what they know and have learned. Option B and Option C are incorrect because these strategies do not include differentiated instruction; all the students are taking in and presenting the information in the same way. The students do not have a choice in how they are going to show what they learned. Universal design for learning is about making all materials accessible to all students and providing opportunities for them to show what they have learned. Option D is incorrect because this strategy does not reflect that all students' academic needs are being met. This shows the learning of a small group of students to an extent, but it does not show that all students were able to succeed or provide them with different methods of showing their understanding.

Competency 012—(Culturally Responsive Practices): Understand how to identify and implement culturally responsive, developmentally appropriate practices to effectively teach and engage all learners.

20. While attending a regional professional development workshop, a fifth-grade team of teachers participates in a small-group discussion on implicit bias and instruction. During the discussion several teachers verbally agree that they have not selected more diverse texts for their reading curriculum because "sometimes diverse texts are not rigorous enough." Which of the following steps should an English language arts teacher take first to address the effect such implicit bias has on instruction?

  1. researching and reading professional texts and developing a curriculum that represents diverse voices
  2. modeling positive behavior and attitudes during classroom activities
  3. learning about and taking into account students' cultural norms and expectations when creating rubrics
  4. reflecting on and writing about personal experiences related to implicit bias
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the concern of several teachers that "sometimes diverse texts are not rigorous enough" reveals their bias. Researching professional texts that explore the issues of diversity and rigor, and then developing a curriculum that intentionally challenges their biased perception of diverse texts. Option B is incorrect because modeling positive behavior does not completely address the issue of implicit bias and diverse texts. This step may be used in a classroom setting to achieve a variety of purposes that are not related to diversity and rigor. Option C is incorrect because considering students' cultural norms and expectations when creating rubrics would not address teachers' implicit bias. Option D is incorrect because reflecting and writing about personal experiences related to implicit bias does not directly address the teachers' concern about the level of rigor in diverse texts. Although the activity might clarify their personal understanding of diverse texts, the teachers would need to be able to apply new understandings to instruction.

Competency 013—(Data-Driven Practice and Formal/Informal Assessment): Understand the types, selection, and uses of data-driven, developmentally appropriate assessments and assessment practices to effectively support program improvement and all students' learning.

21. A fifth-grade class includes a group of students who did not pass the reading portion of the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) in fourth grade. Which of the following processes would most effectively measure progress and inform instruction for this group of students?

  1. adjusting instruction based on the previous year's STAAR data to help students reach grade-level mastery before they take the appropriate assessment in the early spring
  2. giving the students an on-grade-level STAAR Interim Assessment in the fall, then using the data collected to generate a strategic plan to fill in the gaps until the middle of the year
  3. using the STAAR Interim Assessment Reading Blueprint to develop a diagnostic assessment to give students, then using the data gathered to inform instruction throughout the year
  4. including STAAR Released Test Questions in weekly practice activities, then analyzing the results to make decisions about upcoming lessons
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because using the previous year's STAAR data gives the teacher a baseline for where the students are with regard to reading proficiency. By using the data and adjusting reading instruction, the teacher can build on what the students know and make an intervention plan to support the students in reaching grade-level mastery. Option B is incorrect because giving an on-grade-level test to students who failed the previous grade-level test will not help determine what skills students need in order to be successful. It is important for the teacher to know students' levels of reading proficiency and build on their knowledge for an intervention to be successful. Option C is incorrect because the blueprint is only a framework that shows the different categories assessed, the standards, and the number of questions for each category. A diagnostic assessment is used to determine students' accurate level of ability and their strengths and challenges in the subject area so that the teacher can design an intervention and is not used to monitor student's progress throughout the year. Option D is incorrect because STAAR questions are not designed to be used for teaching materials. The STAAR is designed to be a summative assessment that measures students' yearly achievement.

22. A middle school teacher is evaluating classroom assessment practices and identifying assessment outcomes with regard to students' Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) mastery. Which of the following statements best describes the value of using an assessment matrix with the reading TEKS for this purpose?

  1. The matrix collects observational assessment data at multiple points during the lesson, providing information about students' strengths and challenges in relationship to each TEK.
  2. The matrix organizes information about TEKS and assessment methods, allowing teachers to make effective assessment plans.
  3. The matrix represents each assessment data point in a visual model, informing teachers of the best tool to use to assess each TEK.
  4. The matrix provides a representative sample of assessment options used to assess each TEK, helping teachers make appropriate choices.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the assessment matrix is designed to match the student learning outcomes to the various assessment methods used. Teachers can use the matrix to document students' assessment results in relationship to the TEKS and to determine the effectiveness of each classroom assessment used in helping students learn the TEKS. This knowledge will be helpful in planning future assessments effectively. Option A is incorrect because a matrix is used to collect assessment data for all students with relationship to the TEKS to help teachers plan effective future assessments, rather than relying solely on real time data present within any given lesson. Option C is incorrect because the assessment matrix does not inform teachers of the best tools to use to assess each TEK. The matrix informs teachers of students' overall abilities on a given TEK and of assessments that were effective. Option D is incorrect because the assessment matrix organizes information and assessment methods, but it does not give teachers a sample of assessment options.

Clustered Questions

Read the excerpt below from The Book of Salt, a novel by Monique Truong; then answer the three questions that follow.

Aboard the Niobe, I held the red pouch that my mother had so firmly pressed into my hand, and I thought about the days' worth of water between us. Then I thought about the weeks, months, years, decades of water to come. Time for me had always been measured in terms of the rising sun, its setting sister, and the dependable cycle of the moon. But at sea, I learned that time can also be measured in terms of water, in terms of the distance traveled while drifting on it. When measured in this way, nearer and farther are the path of time's movement, not continuously forward along a fast straight line. When measured in this way, time loops and curlicues, and at any given moment it can spiral me away and then bring me rushing home again.

Competency 006—(Reading Literary Texts): Understand the genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes of diverse traditional, contemporary, and classical literary texts; analyze how authors use these elements and characteristics to achieve specific purposes; and demonstrate knowledge of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to engage in text-based analyses of a range of complex literary texts.

23. In the excerpt, the author uses nature imagery primarily to:

  1. express feelings of intense longing.
  2. illustrate the elusive qualities of time.
  3. describe a way to measure distance.
  4. evoke the slow pace of ocean travel.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because images of water are used in the excerpt to indicate the narrator's desire to be home, emphasize the narrator's homesickness, and convey the distance between the narrator and her home and the passage of time. Option B is incorrect because, for the narrator, time can be "measured in terms of water." The narrator believes that time can be quantified and is therefore not elusive. Option C is incorrect because the water imagery is used not only to indicate physical distance but also to emphasize the emotions associated with homesickness, such as loneliness. Option D is incorrect because the narrator does not indicate the speed of travel on the Niobe, but focuses on the emotional impact of being away from home or from a loved one.

24. A teacher wants to promote students' ability to understand the central idea of the excerpt by synthesizing information provided in the excerpt. Which of the following sets of questions uses scaffolding most effectively for this purpose?

  1. Which aspects of nature are most interesting to the narrator?
    How does the narrator describe the images of water?
    How does the narrator's concept of time change?
  2. How would the narrator define home?
    When does the narrator expect to arrive home?
    Who will the narrator visit after arriving home?
  3. What prompts the narrator's reflection?
    Why does the narrator mention the concept of time?
    How does the narrator's reflection on time affect his understanding of memory?
  4. What is the name of the ship that the narrator is traveling on?
    Where is the ship going?
    When does the narrator expect the ship to arrive at its destination?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the set of questions addresses the reasons for and the significance of specific details in text that prompt the narrator's reflection. These questions draw students' attention to relevant details within the text, including the water and the red pouch, that are key to develop their understanding of the central idea. Option A is incorrect because the set of questions prompts the students to analyze descriptive details within the passage without considering how the images convey a central idea. These questions focus on the author's craft, asking the students to consider how the narrator achieves a specific purpose. Option B is incorrect because the set of questions addresses details in the passage that focus on the character of the narrator rather than the central idea of the excerpt. Considering the narrator's definition of home and speculating on what the narrator will do after arriving there may develop students' personal connections to the text but not their understanding of the central idea. Option D is incorrect because the questions focus on insignificant details rather than the central idea of the excerpt. 

25. A teacher wants to create a writing prompt that will help students draw personal connections with the narrator's reflections on time and distance in the excerpt. Which of the following writing prompts would be most appropriate for the teacher to use for this purpose?

  1. Imagine that you can travel back in time to a specific place. Describe the place and time you would visit and explain why you would go there.
  2. Imagine that you are planning your first camping trip. Describe what you will take on the trip and explain why you plan to take those items.
  3. Think about an occasion when you were planning to visit a loved one. Describe how you would feel if the visit were postponed for ten years.
  4. Think about a special occasion in your life that you will always remember. Describe the occasion and explain why you will always remember it.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the prompt encourages the students to explore emotions that are similar to those described by the narrator. Reflecting on being away from a loved one invites students to draw personal connections with the narrator's reflection on homesickness. Option A is incorrect because the narrator is not alluding to time travel. By asking the students to make a connection to time that is not supported by the text, the prompt may distract the students from the purpose of the narrator's reflections. Option B is incorrect because the prompt asks students about specific objects that they would take on a trip. Although this prompt might help students make a connection to the significance of the red pouch in the excerpt, it may be more appropriate for practical writing. Option D is incorrect because the prompt covers a broad topic that may produce student writing that is not related to the specific emotions described by the narrator in the excerpt. In the excerpt the narrator reflects specifically about being homesick.

Additional Selected-Response Questions

This section includes additional sample selected-response questions for you to review in preparation for the exam. The correct answer is provided for each question below.

Domain I—Foundations of Reading

Competency 001—(Foundations of Teaching Reading): Understand research-based, evidence-based, and culturally relevant foundational concepts, principles, and best practices related to reading instruction and assessment.

26. A sixth-grade teacher wants students to make a text-to-self connection with the topic of a text that they are going to read. Which of the following activities would be most effective in supporting this goal?

  1. reading a brief biography of the text's author with students and discussing the author's work
  2. asking students to preview the text, write questions they have about the text, and discuss the answers with classmates
  3. asking students to quickly note their thoughts about an essential idea from the text and then share them
  4. stating the text's topic and asking students to name other texts with similar topics and explain whether they liked those texts and why
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

27. A sixth-grade teacher delivers a lesson that focuses on comparing characters in a drama. The teacher asks students to use a T-chart to write their ideas and then displays a volunteer student's completed chart to begin a discussion. The class reflects on the student's ideas in pairs. The teacher then brings the whole group together to continue the character analysis. This scenario demonstrates the teacher's understanding that effective differentiated instruction should include:

  1. various activities focused on one objective to promote different levels of thinking.
  2. guided questioning to ensure all students formulate their own ideas about a topic.
  3. a discussion of whether students agree or disagree about ideas presented.
  4. graphic organizers to visually organize information for all levels of instruction.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 002—(Foundational Reading Skills): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to the development of foundational reading skills, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level foundational reading skills.

28. A team of seventh-grade teachers wants to help their diverse group of students develop strong literacy and oral communication skills. Which of the following activities would likely be most effective in reaching this goal?

  1. having the students watch a movie based on a novel they read in class and discuss it with different peers in two concentric, revolving circles
  2. reading aloud a short story to the students and asking them to work with a partner to retell and summarize the story's plot
  3. selecting a persuasive text for the students to analyze independently and participate in a Socratic seminar to debate their assertion
  4. asking the students to listen to open-ended questions about a text they read in class and think critically about how they would respond
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

29. Which of the following student activities would be most appropriate for informally assessing fifth-graders' ability to identify and use adages as outlined in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for English Language Arts and Reading foundational vocabulary standards?

  1. giving student groups several adages and having them try to determine what they mean by using context clues
  2. having students read texts containing adages, having them try to figure out their meanings, then providing cards with explanations to match to the correct adage
  3. providing students with a list of adages and having them look up the meanings and origins online
  4. explaining to students what adages are, brainstorming when and why they are used, and having students create their own adages
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 003—(Word Analysis Skills and Reading Fluency): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to the development of word analysis skills and fluency, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level word analysis skills and reading fluency.

30. An eighth-grade teacher is evaluating supplemental texts on U.S. history and wants to select texts for working with a small group of students who are reading below grade level. The teacher's intention is to help the students read at grade level. When considering the quantitative dimensions of text complexity, the teacher should consider the:

  1. structure of the text.
  2. average sentence length found in the text.
  3. purpose of the text.
  4. number of connections students can make to the topic.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

31. While assessing students' oral reading fluency, a teacher notes that a student slows down frequently to confirm and self-correct, which results in a loss of reading momentum. While discussing the text with the student after the reading, the teacher determines that the student's comprehension of the text is satisfactory. Given this student's assessment results, the teacher should take which of the following steps to improve the student's fluency?

  1. providing opportunities for the student to practice making reading sound more natural
  2. encouraging more independent reading at home of lower reading level texts to improve speed
  3. encouraging the student to pause during reading and use text features to increase understanding of the text
  4. providing additional word-solving strategies and texts with which to practice the strategies
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 004—(Vocabulary Development): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to vocabulary development, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level vocabulary knowledge and skills.

32. A teacher reads aloud to students from various texts daily and talks with the students about the texts. This practice best demonstrates the teacher's awareness of which of the following concepts related to vocabulary development?

  1. Discussing a text after hearing it read aloud promotes comprehension of new words in context.
  2. Listening to texts builds students' oral vocabulary, which in turn enriches their reading vocabulary.
  3. Hearing a text read aloud allows students to enjoy the text without having to pause to decode unfamiliar words.
  4. Listening to texts helps students learn how phrasing and intonation convey meaning in text.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

33. A teacher is preparing fourth-grade students to read a book that contains several idioms. Before reading, the teacher engages the students in identifying and learning the meanings of some common English-language idioms. Which of the following strategies would likely be most effective for the teacher to use for this purpose?

  1. reading aloud from a list of idioms and asking students to guess their meanings
  2. having students describe in writing the idioms' meanings within the context of the text
  3. asking students to conduct an idiom scavenger hunt in books they read independently
  4. having students work in pairs to develop original idioms to share with the class
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Domain II—Text Comprehension and Analysis

Competency 005—(Reading Comprehension Development): Understand concepts, principles, and best practices related to the development of reading comprehension, and demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate, research- and evidence-based assessment and instructional practices to promote all students' development of grade-level reading comprehension strategies.

34. During a focused-reading lesson, sixth-grade students are rereading a text about the suffragist movement and reviewing higher-order questions. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate for the teacher to ask as part of this activity?

  1. What is the author's purpose for writing about historical events?
  2. How does the text structure contribute to an understanding of the main events of the Seneca Falls convention?
  3. Why is it important to reread informational texts several times?
  4. Why do you think the author uses the examples in the text to support the claim that the right to vote was crucial for receiving other rights?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

35. Which of the following scenarios in a fifth-grade classroom best shows students engaged in a focused-reading activity?

  1. Students read a text multiple times to understand, interpret at a deeper level, and make connections to the text.
  2. Students read and summarize a text in a small-group setting to check one another's understanding.
  3. Students read a purposeful text as a whole group before discussing the text with classmates in smaller groups.
  4. Students repeat a sentence read by the teacher, imitating the teacher's tone, rhythm, and expression.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

36. A teacher is listening to a fourth-grade student's oral reading of a text. During the reading, the student pauses and looks puzzled after a reading miscue. According to best practices for promoting students' ability to self-monitor during reading, which of the following steps would be most appropriate for the teacher to take first?

  1. pointing out and correcting the student's error
  2. encouraging the student to keep reading to solve the confusion
  3. having the student practice correcting similar errors in other contexts
  4. commending the student for noticing the error and asking what caused confusion
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

37. A seventh-grade student, who has mastered reading fluency and has at-grade-level vocabulary knowledge, struggles with literal and inferential comprehension of a previously read informational text. The student is likely to benefit most from an intervention in which the teacher:

  1. provides an introduction to the text that focuses on words that are key to understanding the text.
  2. helps the student form questions using section headings in the text and locate appropriate responses.
  3. encourages the student to make connections to the topic of the text by watching a related video.
  4. has the student complete a word map to show relationships among facts and concepts in the text.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 006—(Reading Literary Texts): Understand the genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes of diverse traditional, contemporary, and classical literary texts; analyze how authors use these elements and characteristics to achieve specific purposes; and demonstrate knowledge of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to engage in text-based analyses of a range of complex literary texts.

38. A sixth-grade teacher would like to assess students' understanding of an author's use of flashbacks for plot development in a novel they are reading in class. Which of the following student activities would be most appropriate for this purpose?

  1. explaining how details in a flashback provide context for creating a conflict between characters
  2. comparing the language used in dialogue spoken in flashbacks from various times in a character's life
  3. analyzing how the author uses temporal words to transition from a character's present-day setting to a flashback
  4. writing an interior monologue that reveals a character's thoughts and feelings during a flashback
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct.

Competency 007—(Reading Informational and Argumentative Texts): Understand the elements and characteristics of informational and argumentative texts, analyze how authors use these elements and characteristics to achieve specific purposes, and demonstrate knowledge of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to engage in text-based analyses of complex informational and argumentative texts.

39. Students in an eighth-grade class are preparing to read an argumentative essay. Which of the following activities would be most effective for promoting the students' ability to distinguish fact from opinion in the essay?

  1. using reliable sources to verify information
  2. supporting valid generalizations with facts
  3. stating agreement or disagreement with expressions of opinion in the essay
  4. reviewing examples of words and phrases that may signal a personal viewpoint
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

40. An eighth-grade English language arts teacher plans to have students read and discuss an essay about how the designation Ms. became an alternative to "Miss" and "Mrs." during the women's movement of the 1970s. The teacher uses entrance cards to assess the students' knowledge of the topic and determines that their knowledge is limited. Which of the following strategies would be most appropriate for the teacher to use to support the students' comprehension of the essay?

  1. providing definitions of key vocabulary from the essay and asking the students to use the words when discussing the essay in class
  2. showing a video that introduces basic facts about the women's movement and guiding the students in a discussion of what they learned
  3. identifying several inspiring leaders in the women's movement and having the students research the significant contributions of each
  4. presenting a time line of significant events during the 1970s and explaining how these events were linked to the women's movement
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Domain III—Oral and Written Composition

Competency 008—(Composition): Understand the characteristics of various genres of written text; apply knowledge of strategies for developing well-organized, engaging, written texts that achieve specific purposes for specific audiences; and apply knowledge of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to develop well-organized, engaging, written texts that achieve specific purposes for specific audiences.

41. A student is developing an essay on the topic of bird-watching. Which of the following versions of an introductory sentence would be most appropriate for the student to use to engage readers' attention?

  1. I disagree wholeheartedly with the commonly held belief that bird-watching is a boring hobby.
  2. Bird-watching is not your average hobby; it requires stealth, quick reactions, and plenty of patience.
  3. You are wrong if you think bird-watchers spend all their time looking through binoculars at trees.
  4. Bird-watching has helped me develop many unique skills, such as differentiating colors and shapes from a distance.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

42. A seventh-grade teacher wants to assess students' writing skills before starting a lesson on writing formal correspondence. Which of the following writing prompts would be most appropriate for the teacher to use for this purpose?

  1. A relative you see once a year sends you a birthday present. Write a thank-you note expressing gratitude for the gift.
  2. You receive defective merchandise from an online purchase. Write a letter to the seller describing the problem and proposing a fair solution.
  3. You are taking care of a neighbor's pet while the neighbor is away. Write a letter to let the neighbor know how the pet is doing.
  4. A friend in another state sends you a letter asking for help with a personal problem. Write a letter in response to your friend's request.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 009—(Inquiry and Research): Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for conducting focused inquiry and research and presenting the results in an appropriate, responsible, and ethical manner and of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' ability to conduct focused inquiry and research and present the results in an appropriate, responsible, and ethical manner.

43. While gathering information about Big Bend National Park from online sources, a student finds the two statements that appear below.

From an elevation of less than 1,800 feet along the Rio Grande to nearly 8,000 feet in the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend includes massive canyons, vast desert expanses, forested mountains, and an ever-changing river.

—from the National Park Service Web site

Springtime in the region is the ideal time to see both resident & migratory birds—over 450 species have been recorded in the Big Bend region.

—from Mountain Trails Lodge & Outdoor Learning Center Web site

Which of the following sentences drafted by the student most effectively synthesizes the information provided in the two statements?

  1. Varied landscapes at a range of elevations provide perfect habitats for the birds that migrate to Big Bend after a long winter.
  2. The best time to visit Big Bend is in the spring, because there are many sights to see and many types of terrain to traverse.
  3. In the spring, over 450 species of birds thrive across Big Bend's vast spaces, which include canyons, deserts, mountains, and a river.
  4. From deep canyons to tree-covered mountains, from expansive deserts to a changing river, Big Bend offers a plethora of wildlife habitats.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

44. Seventh-grade students read Farewell to Manzanar: A True Story of Japanese American Experience During and After the World War II Internment, a memoir by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston. After reading the memoir, the students' teacher wants them to conduct research on an aspect of the Japanese American experience during the 1940s. Which of the following activities would be most appropriate for the students to engage in first?

  1. reading several other memoirs about the events and comparing and contrasting the authors' perspectives
  2. determining an appropriate end product for sharing their findings with the class
  3. performing a preliminary search for sources and developing guiding questions
  4. identifying an aspect of the events in the memoir that particularly interests them and planning research on that aspect
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct.

Competency 010—(Listening and Speaking): Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for critical listening and collaborative speaking and of research-based strategies and best practices for promoting students' skills in critical listening and collaborative speaking, including using differentiation strategies that are culturally and academically appropriate for all students.

45. During a unit on the Harlem Renaissance, an eighth-grade teacher presents the information below as part of a slideshow.

Dorothy West (1907–1998)

  • Twentieth-century author who explored the aspirations of middle-class Black Americans
  • West's short story "The Typewriter" (1926) won a national competition held by Opportunity, a publication of the National Urban League
  • West is best known for The Living Is Easy (1947)
  • West's stories were first published in The Boston Post in 1921
  • West was nicknamed "The Kid" by other Harlem Renaissance writers

While presenting the slide, the teacher states that Dorothy West was fourteen years old when her stories were published in The Boston Post. Which of the following questions should the teacher ask to develop the students' critical-listening skills?

  1. Why did other Harlem Renaissance writers call Dorothy West "The Kid"?
  2. If you were to research Dorothy West's life, what would you expect to learn about her?
  3. What do you think were Dorothy West's childhood ambitions?
  4. How could you find out where Dorothy West grew up?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

46. A group of fifth-grade students is discussing a passage from a novel they are reading in class. When the teacher asks the group to describe the setting, one student says, "It's a weird and mysterious house," and the rest of the class agrees. Which of the following responses by the teacher would most effectively help the other students in the group elaborate on the first student's statement?

  1. reminding the students that "weird" and "mysterious" are two of many words they can use to describe a house
  2. asking each student to provide their own understanding of the words "weird" and "mysterious"
  3. giving the students a few minutes to find textual evidence that the house is "weird and mysterious"
  4. providing the students with plot details that explain why the house appears "weird and mysterious"
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

47. An eighth-grade teacher notices that several students tend to dominate speaking opportunities in the classroom. The teacher is planning a literature unit that will include whole-class instruction and small-group collaboration on a project. The teacher wants to ensure that all students will have opportunities to have their voices heard during these activities. Which of the following instructional practices would be most appropriate for the teacher to use?

  1. assigning the students clear roles, and providing a rubric for the students to use to assess their academic discussion skills
  2. having the students use a mobile application to communicate about the project during class and at home
  3. demonstrating effective listening, turn-taking, and speaking behaviors the students can apply during group work
  4. encouraging the students to ask their classmates for clarification and elaboration during a disagreement
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct.

Domain IV—Educating All Learners and Professional Practice

Competency 011—(Differentiation Strategies in Planning and Practice): Understand how to identify and implement developmentally and culturally appropriate strategies and data-driven practices to effectively teach and engage all learners.

48. Based on feedback received from students, an eighth-grade teacher is providing more opportunities for students to work on tasks independently. While the students read a short story independently, the teacher wants them to actively participate and understand what they are reading. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for keeping students engaged and monitoring their understanding of the short story?

  1. calling on individual students randomly and asking them comprehension questions about the short story
  2. moving around the room and asking several students comprehension questions about the short story as they work on their reader response journals
  3. having students pair-read and ask each other comprehension questions about the short story
  4. having individual conferences with students to ask them comprehension questions about the short story
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Competency 012—(Culturally Responsive Practices): Understand how to identify and implement culturally responsive, developmentally appropriate practices to effectively teach and engage all learners.

49. A sixth-grade English language arts teacher wants to foster a positive relationship between students and the course content where students begin to see their classroom as a writing community. Which of the following approaches would be most appropriate for the teacher to use to promote higher student expectations for themselves in class?

  1. encouraging students to communicate frequently with classmates about their writing outside of class
  2. meeting with students on a regular basis to confer about their writing and to establish their author identity
  3. having students use a secure online platform where they can share their work with classmates
  4. working with students to create a rubric that will be used to evaluate each other's collective achievement
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

50. A middle school English language arts teacher wants to motivate students to read independently for pleasure and to build knowledge. Which of the following approaches would be most effective for the teacher to use to achieve this goal?

  1. setting aside 20 minutes a day for the students and teacher to read quietly
  2. providing varied genres of literary and informational texts that represent a range of perspectives in the classroom library
  3. taking students to the school library to select books for independent reading and class assignments on a regular basis
  4. posting a list of books recommended by the school librarian on the class Web site
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct.

Return to Navigation