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Section 4: Sample Selected-Response Questions
Principal as Instructional Leader (268)

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This section presents some sample exam questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the exam. To demonstrate how each competency may be assessed, each sample question is accompanied by the competency that it measures. While studying, you may wish to read the competency before and after you consider each sample question. Please note that the competency statements do not appear on the actual exam.

For each sample exam question, there is a correct answer and a rationale for each answer option. The sample questions are included to illustrate the formats and types of questions you will see on the exam; however, your performance on the sample questions should not be viewed as a predictor of your performance on the actual exam.

The sample questions included are representative of all competencies, but not necessarily all descriptive statements. The sample questions can be used to establish rigor, alignment, and context expectations you can expect on the actual exam. However, the questions should not be considered all-inclusive of the content of the descriptive statements.

The sample questions should not be used to gauge the time it will take you to complete the exam because the questions are not representative of the total number of questions on an actual exam or weighted by domain or competency to reflect an actual exam.

Domain I—School Culture

Competency 001—The entry-level principal knows how to establish and implement a shared vision and culture of high expectations for all stakeholders (students, staff, parents, and community).

1. The campus-improvement team in a low-performing school uses three questionnaires to gather data for making recommendations to the school leadership. One questionnaire asks students about their perception of their school experience. Another asks parents how effectively the school serves students. The third asks teachers what beliefs they hold about students. The responses in the questionnaires will be most valuable for helping the team to determine the

  1. factors that may be affecting student performance.
  2. school's reputation in the community.
  3. gaps in the school's communication methods.
  4. influence of family involvement on student motivation.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the questionnaires provide multiple sources of data that will create a more complete picture and help school leadership determine the root cause behind current student performance. Option B is incorrect because the stakeholders being surveyed are both internal and external. Without intentional development of the questions to obtain valid information about the school's reputation, these surveys would not be most valuable for this purpose. Option C is incorrect because providing this data would not support any conclusion on the topic. Option D is incorrect because providing this data would not support any conclusion on the topic.

Competency 001—The entry-level principal knows how to establish and implement a shared vision and culture of high expectations for all stakeholders (students, staff, parents, and community).

2. Roy, a middle school student with speech and motor delays, is regularly the target of derogatory comments by Jeremy, one of his classmates. One day, Roy tells Jeremy that he likes a girl in the class. That evening, Jeremy creates a fake social media account pretending to be the girl Roy likes. After multiple online messages, Jeremy posts Roy's comments for everyone to see, although they were intended for the girl. Roy is humiliated and refuses to go to school. Roy's parents reach out to the principal and request help.

In addition to investigating the situation, the principal plans to take several actions.

For each row, determine whether the action is appropriate or inappropriate.

Action Appropriate Inappropriate
Develop a response plan for Roy in collaboration with his parents blank blank
Have Roy and Jeremy participate in peer mediation blank blank
Provide Roy's parents with a list of the students who saw the social media posts blank blank
Discuss strategies for monitoring the online activities of teens with the parents of students involved blank blank
Provide schoolwide lessons on appropriate student-to-student interactions with peers blank blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Rows 1, 4, and 5 are appropriate because each action supports developing a strong culture of health and wellness support and develops an entire school culture that bullying is not permitted and all students are included and respected. Row 2 is incorrect because conflict resolution and peer mediation are not effective interventions for bullying. Mediation can be very upsetting for the student being bullied and make the situation worse. Row 3 is incorrect because Family Education Rights and Protection Act (FERPA) protects the names of students involved. Each student's parents can only receive information on their student.

Competency 002—The entry-level principal knows how to work with stakeholders as key partners to support student learning.

3. At the beginning of the school year, a high school principal and grade level chairperson plan a home visit to welcome and establish a relationship with a new student and the student's family, who are refugees.

Before the visit, the principal and chairperson explore the best ways to establish a relationship and shared understanding with the family.

For each row, determine whether the action is effective or ineffective in establishing a family-centered academic success plan for the student.

Action

Effective

Ineffective

Requesting information on the family's preferred language blank blank
Focusing attention on the message that the families need to conform to school expectations in a short period of time blank blank
Learning about the family's cultural and ethnic values to enhance the student's learning experience blank blank
Providing the instructional approach the teachers most commonly use during classroom instruction blank blank
Providing a list of school rules and requirements for the parents to sign acknowledging receipt blank blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Rows 1 and 3 are effective because home visits are a proactive approach to parent involvement and work to develop a family-centered action plan to increase student success. Elements of an effective home visit include preparing by reviewing records and family history, setting a positive tone and being a good listener, having specific goals and objectives for each visit, allowing family input and respecting cultural and ethnic values, and providing follow-up resources and information. The principal can respect cultural values by learning about the family's preferred language to enhance communication and learning more about the family's culture to better weave the student's experiences into instruction. Row 2 is ineffective because the family should be the focus of the visit. All family members should be encouraged to participate, share, and develop a family-centered plan to help the student be successful at the new school. The principal should not be the focus of the visit and require conformity; rather, the tone of the meeting should be collaborative and respectful. Row 4 is ineffective because the purpose of the visit is not to tell the family how to conform to a teacher's instructional approach, but to listen to their input and learn more about the natural learning styles, preferences, and learning needs of the student. Row 5 is ineffective because providing the list of rules to be signed provides little help when establishing a family-centered plan for the student.

Domain II—Leading Learning

Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

4. An elementary principal observes a second-grade teacher for 30 minutes during a science lab. The principal sees the following information displayed on the board.

Today's Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Objective:

2.5(A) Classify matter by physical properties, including shape, relative mass, relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid.

As part of the standard observation protocol, the principal asks two students near the end of the lesson, "What are you learning about today?" and receives confused looks from both students.

The principal plans to work with the teacher to take steps to improve students' understanding of expectations for each lesson.

Place in order from first to last the steps the principal should have the teacher take when developing student-centered lesson objectives.

First blank
Second blank
Third blank
Last blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded

The correct order for the steps is as follows. First, consider what students should know and be able to do based on the TEKS for that lesson. Second, break down the skill and content in the TEKS into appropriate daily objectives, taking into consideration how to decrease the formal language and measure mastery. Third, display on the board and discuss with students the lesson objective, such as "I can use a scale to measure and classify the mass of different objects." Last, state the objective and have students reflect on their mastery level based on the completed learning activity. An effective lesson is built on the foundation of knowing what students need to know and be able to do. The process of reviewing a content standard and breaking it down into prerequisite skills and the context for student performance is important to ensuring appropriate pacing, aligned activities, appropriate scaffolding, and aligned and rigorous assessment of learning. Once lesson objectives are determined, they should be displayed and discussed with students in age-appropriate, student-centered language to better ensure students achieve learning goals. Students will know clearly what the expectation is for the lesson, be empowered to achieve the goal, and have a common focus for learning.


Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

5. The principal of a rural elementary school completes an assessment of the school's prekindergarten class using the state-provided rubric. The principal and the prekindergarten teacher meet to review the data, identify strengths and areas for improvement, and make a plan of next steps.

Below is one component of the evaluation.

Prekindergarten Component: Instruction Feedback on the Instructional Component
Concept and skill development Concepts and skills are introduced and reinforced throughout the school day.
Daily class schedule A daily and weekly schedule is posted but inconsistently followed.
Teaching strategies There are several periods throughout the day when the teacher leads 45-minute whole-group instruction.
Teacher-student interactions The teacher redirects and reinforces student behavior regularly during lessons.
Planning The teacher plans with the kindergarten teacher once a week to engage in vertical planning meetings.

Based on the assessment, which of the following is the most appropriate question for the principal to ask to improve the teacher's instruction?

  1. Have you tried using an integrated thematic approach to instructional planning to support students' concept development?
  2. Have you considered scheduling at least 45 minutes a day on fine and gross motor development to curb student behavior problems?
  3. How do you plan for the structuring and grouping of lesson activities in a way that considers student's developmental capacity?
  4. What progress-monitoring tools do you use to gather data, inform intervention plans, and make student referral recommendations?
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the assessment indicates that the teacher is spending 45 minutes on teacher-led whole-group instruction. Based on the average attention span of a prekindergarten student, this is far too long for direct instruction, even if the content is interesting for the students. The teacher should adjust instruction to shift between developmentally appropriate whole-group, small-group, and choice activities that are well suited for the childrens' attention spans. Option A is incorrect because using an integrated thematic approach to learning will not address the primary problem, which is teacher-led whole-group instruction and classroom management. Option B is incorrect because although it is best practice to allot this amount of time to gross and fine motor development, the purpose of these activities is not explicitly to address problem behaviors. Option D is incorrect because increasing the use of progress monitoring tools will not address the primary problem, which is teacher-led whole-group instruction and classroom management.

Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

6. After reviewing the campus-wide needs assessment showing that many English learners struggle with reading comprehension due to their current level of vocabulary development, a middle school principal and teachers work collaboratively to implement an initiative to revise district curriculum to increase and improve vocabulary instruction.

Identify the THREE program elements for effective vocabulary instruction that the school should include in its curriculum revisions.

Embed vocabulary instruction in engaging text

Focus on a thorough understanding of a small set of high-utility academic words

Incorporate a structured writing process to assess and promote the use of target words

Study a multitude of words within a long text to increase breadth of understanding

Limit explicit word-learning strategies to advanced students studying challenging texts

blank blank blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
The correct options are 1) embed vocabulary instruction in engaging text, 2) focus on a thorough understanding of a small set of high-utility academic words, and 3) incorporate a structured writing process to assess and promote the incorporation of target words. The research tells us that effective vocabulary instruction includes focusing on deep understanding of a relatively small number of words, their elements and related words in rich contexts. As well, selecting words carefully to make sure they are high utility in nature is more valuable than targeting low-frequency and relatively unimportant words. Last, a balanced direct teaching of words with teaching word-learning strategies is important to support using contextual cues and using one's morphological awareness skills.

Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

7. A principal coaches a second-grade teacher who is struggling to determine whether the expectations and work products of a writing lesson taught the day before are at an appropriate level of rigor.

Place the following coaching actions in order from first to last to best help the teacher determine what adjustments may be needed.

Ensure the knowledge and skills needed to create an exemplar response are included in the lesson's activities.

Review the grade-level Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) the lesson is intended to address.

Create an exemplar that defines an ideal student response to exit ticket questions.

Determine whether exit ticket questions for the targeted TEKS lead to the rigor that is demonstrated in the state-mandated assessment questions for the next tested grade level.

First blank
Second blank
Third blank
Last blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
The correct order for the steps is as follows. First, review the grade-level Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) the lesson is intended to address. Second, determine whether exit ticket questions for the targeted TEKS lead to the rigor that is demonstrated in the state-mandated assessment questions for the next tested grade level. Since writing is not tested in second grade or third grade, the fourth-grade assessment should be reviewed to work backward and scaffold student learning in second and third grade to reach the desired level of rigor. Third, create an exemplar that defines an ideal student response to exit ticket questions. Last, ensure the knowledge and skills needed to create an exemplar response are included in the lesson's activities. To effectively determine whether the lesson is appropriately rigorous, the principal and teacher need to complete several steps. They should start with the TEKS the lesson is intended to support. By deconstructing the TEKS the teacher can see concepts being addressed in the lesson, what students are expected to know, and to what extent students understand the expectation. This allows the teacher to most effectively teach students the information and skills identified in the TEKS. Then, the teacher needs to review the assessment measuring mastery and determine whether the questions are at an appropriate level of rigor and will lead to the level of rigor tested on the next state-mandated assessment in fourth grade. The teacher should review released questions on the state-mandated assessment for the identified TEKS and look at released writing samples. Third, the teacher should draft an exemplar to define the desired level of mastery. This will set the level of expectation and allow the teacher to determine the characteristics of the exemplar. Last, the teacher should review the exemplar in detail and consider whether the knowledge and skills needed to create the exemplar response are included in the lesson's activities. Listing the knowledge and skills will help the teacher consider the activities of the lesson and make adjustments to ensure alignment between the activities and the product expected of students at the end of the lesson.

Domain III—Human Capital

Competency 006—The entry-level principal knows how to promote high-quality teaching by using selection, placement, and retention practices to promote teacher excellence and growth.

8. Which of the following interview strategies should the principal use to best assess the instructional effectiveness of candidates being interviewed?

  1. Asking the candidate what skills he or she possesses to ensure the success of students at the school
  2. Providing the candidate with a lesson plan and asking how it could be improved
  3. Requiring the candidate to reflect on an instructional goal he or she has achieved in the last 3 years
  4. Having the candidate teach a sample lesson and then answer reflective questions about the lesson
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because seeing a teacher teach a sample lesson gives a more accurate picture of the candidate's teaching abilities. The reflection questions provide a sense of the candidate's growth mindset and ability to analyze his or her own practice. Options A, B, and C are incorrect because these interview strategies are not the most predictive measures of teacher performance and do not replicate the day-to-day tasks of a teacher.

Domain IV—Executive Leadership

Competency 007—The entry-level principal knows how to develop relationships with internal and external stakeholders, including selecting appropriate communication strategies for particular audiences.

9. Ms. Sawyer, an elementary principal, develops a short survey for parents of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students to gather data on school-home communication trends. The responses are shown below.

Data from Survey Percent of affirmative parent responses
My child's teacher communicates with me when: Grade 3
(n=77)
Grade 4
(n=75)
Grade 5
(n=76)
  • there are upcoming events and trips
100% 100% 100%
  • grade reports are finalized
100% 100% 100%
  • my child is beginning to struggle in class
21% 33% 28%
  • we need to work together on a plan for helping my child
19% 29% 26%
  • my child has failed a class
100% 100% 100%
  • my child has success or achievement in school
75% 73% 76%
  • a behavior problem occurs in the classroom
73% 80% 89%
  • homework has not been completed
91% 84% 71%
  • a new topic is about to be taught
25% 27% 20%
  • parents can take an active role in supporting learning at home
22% 28% 25%

Based on the survey data, Ms. Sawyer should

  1. implement a set of expectations for proactive home-school communication, including the frequency, formats, and content.
  2. acknowledge grade levels that communicate frequently with parents, while suggesting improvements for those who communicate less frequently.
  3. ask individual grade levels to develop a school-home communication policy that reflects the preferences of parents.
  4. create parent focus groups to discuss and prioritize what topics should represent the majority of communications initiated by teachers.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the data show a need for greater consistency among grade levels for communication with families of students. They also show that grade levels tend to be more reactive in their communications and need to include proactive strategies like informing parents that students are beginning to struggle, contacting parents when a plan needs to be generated to support student learning, and informing parents of upcoming curriculum topics. Option B is incorrect because pointing out teachers who are doing better does not solve the problem of large gaps in external communication and might simply discourage those who are lacking. Ms. Sawyer should set clear expectations to ensure that everyone has a shared understanding of home-school communication expectations. Option C is incorrect because each team may develop its own policy, which does not address the schoolwide inconsistency. Having a schoolwide communication policy ensures that processes and procedures are followed by faculty, resulting in consistent, streamlined, and effective communication throughout all grade levels that work to improve student success. Option D is incorrect because the survey clearly indicates that communication needs to be more consistent and more proactive. Parent focus groups may confirm this need but will not effectively address the problem.

Competency 007—The entry-level principal knows how to develop relationships with internal and external stakeholders, including selecting appropriate communication strategies for particular audiences.

10. A suburban high school in a wealthy area of town is launching a health science program that will include clinical rotations and certification preparation to ready students for roles in the medical field. Parents and community members were vastly in favor of the program until they found out that application to the program would be open to all students in the district, not just students in the high school's attendance zone. Parents are now expressing apprehension that bringing in outsiders will have a negative effect on the school's achievement results and overall reputation.

The principal will address the issue most effectively by taking which TWO of the following steps?

  1. Asking district officials to consider moving the health science program to a high school in a different part of the district
  2. Requesting that the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) receive and respond to questions about the program from the parents and community
  3. Meeting with parents to discuss the program's purpose and to understand their ideas and concerns about the program and its expansion
  4. Allocating the majority of the openings in the health science program to students living in the attendance zone in order to address parents' concerns
  5. Discussing with stakeholders the value of having a diverse student population as the new program is implemented
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the principal has the opportunity to respond to the concerns of the community and better explain the benefits of the program. By talking with parents about their hopes for the program as well as their fears of its expansion, the principal will have enough information to better promote the expanded program. Option E is correct because expanding the program to include students outside the school's attendance zone can result in a more diverse student population. The principal should highlight the benefits of diversity in a program, including valuing representation that reflects the districtwide community, helping underrepresented student groups see these types of career fields as attainable, and promoting mutual understanding of student differences. Option A is incorrect because if the community members feel that they were able to get their way with this initiative, it will be even more difficult to garner support for the next one that they do not like. Option B is incorrect because the PTA may also be against the changes and will not effectively be able to garner support. Option D is incorrect because the students in the attendance zone may not be the best-qualified applicants, and there should be equity in access for the program.

Domain V—Strategic Operations

Competency 010—The entry-level principal knows how to provide administrative leadership through resource management, policy implementation, and coordination of school operations and programs to ensure a safe learning environment.

11. Mischa is a first-grade student with an orthopedic impairment who has received special education services since kindergarten. After enrolling her in a new school, Mischa's parents contact the principal to request special transportation for her instead of having her use the transportation services for nondisabled students. Which of the following principal responses to the parents' request is most appropriate?

  1. Informing Mischa's parents that an Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) meeting will be scheduled to immediately discuss the most appropriate transportation service
  2. Asking the parents to provide written documentation from a licensed physician that explains Mischa's need for accommodated transportation
  3. Contacting the district transportation department to schedule bus service that accommodates Mischa's physical impairment
  4. Updating Mischa's Individualized Education Program (IEP) to reflect that specialized transportation services are required to meet the student's needs
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because special transportation is an ARD decision. The ARD committee needs to convene and discuss providing this related service for the student. Option B is incorrect because although the student's physical needs will be discussed at the ARD meeting, it is inappropriate for the principal to ask the parents to provide written medical documentation outside of the context of the meeting. Option C is incorrect because the principal cannot make a special transportation decision without approval of the ARD committee. Option D is incorrect because the principal cannot update a student's IEP without approval of the ARD committee.

Competency 010—The entry-level principal knows how to provide administrative leadership through resource management, policy implementation, and coordination of school operations and programs to ensure a safe learning environment.

12. For the past three years, a high school has allocated state funds for resources and staff as part of a campus-based compensatory education program. When planning for the next school year, the principal and campus improvement committee must keep in mind that resources from the State Compensatory Education (SCE) program can be redirected in which of the following circumstances?

  1. Evaluations show that the school's program is unsuccessful in achieving desired outcomes for students who are at risk of dropping out.
  2. Expenditures for the school's program exceed $500,000 or exceed expenditures for the regular education program, whichever is greater.
  3. The school is enrolling students in the program who have performed satisfactorily on readiness tests and state assessments.
  4. The school's site-based decision-making committee fails to include an extended-year program in the campus improvement plan.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because SCE resources have to be redirected if programs and services are not effective in preventing at-risk students from dropping out. Option B is incorrect because schools are allowed to use more than $500,000 of state compensatory funds. These schools must submit campus improvement plans to the TEA that include specific interventions for students who are at risk of dropping out. Option C is incorrect because students may be considered at risk of dropping out of school even if they have been passing assessments. Option D is incorrect because the extended-year program is optional. Schools can meet requirements for SCE resource allocation without offering extended-year programs.

Competency 010—The entry-level principal knows how to provide administrative leadership through resource management, policy implementation, and coordination of school operations and programs to ensure a safe learning environment.

13. A principal joins the faculty of a high school with a high number of student suspensions, especially among African American and Hispanic males. The student discipline team shares with the principal that the former administration addressed the problem by instituting zero-tolerance policies and increasing the length and severity of disciplinary consequences. Despite being in place for two years, the new policies have failed to reduce the number of suspensions or the disproportionate number of suspensions among males in these two student groups. The team looks to the new principal for guidance in going forward. Which of the following is the best direction for the principal to recommend?

  1. Basing discipline policies on behavioral conditioning that reinforces desired behavior with rewards and eliminates misbehavior by removing rewards
  2. Shifting the focus of discipline from punishment and exclusion to practices that build students' ability to reflect, accept accountability, and take action to change
  3. Instituting a schoolwide respect-building program that incentivizes desired behavior with tokens students can use to earn privileges or redeem a reward
  4. Weighting infractions as minor or major, with prescribed action steps for addressing each before suspension is considered as a disciplinary consequence
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) method, which is described, places a high value on the engagement of the student and is shown to be effective in reducing disciplinary referrals among all students, especially African American and Hispanic males. Option A is incorrect because using external rewards and consequences to create behavioral change fails to make students managers of their own behavior, does not work with all students, and fails to utilize the teaching of behavioral expectations and respect. Option C is incorrect because token economies do not provide a multidimensional, campus-wide approach that considers multiple aspects of student discipline, such as providing instruction on new skills as a replacement for problem behaviors, creating a high-quality learning environment to prevent undesirable behaviors, or establishing a person-centered approach that considers the needs of the youth and the families. The complexity of responding to serious misbehavior by at-risk student groups is unaddressed in a token economy. Option D is incorrect because there is likely already a weighted system for disciplinary infractions and this only changes the process, not the interventions used to address discipline.

Domain VI—Ethics, Equity, and Diversity

Competency 011—The entry-level principal knows how to provide ethical leadership by advocating for children and ensuring student access to effective educators, programs, and services.

14. A superintendent reviews with principals district-wide data on allegations of abuse and sexual misconduct by staff members.

  • 24% increase in allegations of staff members being involved in a sexual relationship with a minor
  • 18% increase in reports that an educator's employment was terminated for sexual misconduct at another district, and the educator applied for employment in our district
  • 11% increase in allegations of physical abuse by a staff member of a student

In response to the recent rise in alleged misconduct by staff, each principal focuses on ensuring the safety and well-being of all students.

For each row, determine if the principal's action appropriately or inappropriately responds to allegations of sexual misconduct or abuse by staff members.

Principal's Action Appropriate Inappropriate
Reporting incidents to the superintendent when a staff member resigns, is terminated, or is arrested for soliciting sexual contact with a minor blank blank
Discontinuing the investigation into an allegation of a romantic relationship with a student when the employee resigns blank blank
Refraining from including law enforcement, Child Protective Services, and the district human resources department in the investigation process until the allegation is confirmed blank blank
Documenting the investigation in writing to assist with information being reported by the superintendent to the State Board for Educator Certification within 7 days blank blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
The correct answers are as follows. Rows 1 and 4 are appropriate responses to an allegation of abuse or sexual misconduct by a staff member. Rows 2 and 3 are inappropriate responses to an allegation of abuse or sexual misconduct by a staff member. According to Texas Family Code 261.101, Child Protective Services should be notified if there is cause to believe a child has been abused. Texas Education Code 21.006 requires the reporting of educator misconduct, including sexual conduct involving an educator and a student or minor. The statute requires the school district ensure an investigation is completed regarding the allegations. The investigation must be completed even if the employee resigns. Because the investigation can be hampered if the employee resigns early in the process or influences student witnesses, the principal should seek support from a third party to complete the investigation. The third party could include the district's legal counsel, human resources department, or law enforcement. As well, the statute requires the superintendent to report in writing within 7 days the termination or resignation of the educator due to the alleged misconduct covered by the statute.

Competency 011—The entry-level principal knows how to provide ethical leadership by advocating for children and ensuring student access to effective educators, programs, and services.

15. Ms. Desiderio, an elementary school principal, observes Ms. Childs leading a reading lesson on common elements of notable American poems. During the lesson, Ms. Childs refers to a previous All About Me lesson during which Namiko, a student, shared about her love of writing haiku and senryu poems. Ms. Childs planned for and then led a class discussion on how poetic elements in Japanese poetry relate to those in poems being studied in class. Ms. Desiderio communicates positive feedback after the lesson. In which of the following ways did Ms. Childs support Namiko's learning?

  1. She established high expectations for learning and modified the curriculum to accommodate the student's current needs.
  2. She used language that is easily accessible to an English learner to ensure that the student understood what she was asking.
  3. She structured a learning environment that accommodated the student's interests so the student would feel safe and supported enough to take risks in the classroom.
  4. She acknowledged a student's lived experience and connected it to the material she was teaching to place student culture at the center of learning.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because culturally competent teaching shows respect for others and their unique cultural background. The teacher connected the student's lived experience (writing Japanese poetry) to the material being taught (American poems) to place student culture at the center of learning. Option A is incorrect because the teacher did not modify the curriculum; she accommodated the student's needs by making a cultural connection. Option B is incorrect because there is no evidence that the teacher used simplified language. Option C is incorrect because while it is appropriate to structure a lesson to ensure that students feel safe enough to take risks, there is no evidence in the scenario that the student was hesitant and the teacher was responsive in accommodating the student. Instead, the teacher is helping the student make connections to better comprehend the curriculum.

Competency 011—The entry-level principal knows how to provide ethical leadership by advocating for children and ensuring student access to effective educators, programs, and services.

16. In order to support a strong school culture, a middle school principal proposes a counseling program that integrates career, character, and leadership education into classroom academic lessons. Implementing the program involves collaboration between teachers and school counselors to teach integrated lessons. After introducing the new initiative and its core principles, the teachers and counselors are ready to begin implementation. Which of the following is the principal's best next step?

  1. Preparing a schedule of team-teaching opportunities for teachers and counselors to begin teaching lessons and measuring student mastery
  2. Allowing time for counselors to observe classes to get a sense of each teacher's teaching style
  3. Providing the program's student-learning objectives with a list of selected academic classes and lessons for integration
  4. Having teachers and counselors review content standards and the program's student-learning objectives to determine appropriate lesson placement and sequence
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because collaboration between school counselors and teachers will ensure a mutual understanding of state academic standards and the scope and sequence of the curriculum. This will lay the foundation for the entire initiative and allow counselors to gain an understanding of the academic scope and sequence to best determine where counseling lessons logically fit into academic lessons. Option A is incorrect because preparing a schedule of specific team-teaching opportunities for teachers and counselors would not be the next step in creating valuable lessons in which counseling concepts are blended with academics, since the foundation for the curriculum should be well understood before the lessons are scheduled. Option B is incorrect because allowing time for the counselors to observe each classroom and become familiar with various teaching styles is not the best next step in the task of creating lessons that blend counseling concepts with academics, since it is more pressing for there to be a foundation for understanding the academic standards and scope and sequence. Option C is incorrect because determining which counseling objectives will be infused in the academic lessons should be made by teachers and counselors when they work together. It is more important for the counselor to understand the academic standards and scope and sequence to determine how counseling objectives can be integrated.

Clustered Sets

Questions 17–20 refer to the following information.

Review the question and the 1-minute video clip of a post-observation conference.

Mr. Ramirez is a principal in a 9–12 high school. A few days ago, he observed the eleventh-grade English literature class of Ms. O'Toole, an experienced teacher. The class had just concluded their study of the novel Candide, and Ms. O'Toole had planned an independent practice involving small groups of students discussing open-ended questions and drawing conclusions about the novel.

During the post-observation conference, Mr. Ramirez asks Ms. O'Toole to identify an aspect of the lesson that did not go as planned. Refer to the following video where Ms. O'Toole responds to the principal's question.

Video of the Teacher's Reflections During a Post-Observation Conference

Review the 1-minute video clip of a post-observation conference.

Play video in new window

View a transcript of the video links to a PDF document

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

17. Ms. O'Toole indicates that she is discouraged by the lack of understanding in the conclusions the students drew about the novel's main character. Which of the following is Mr. Ramirez' most appropriate initial response to Ms. O'Toole?

  1. "Discouragement builds perseverance and resilience; you should see this as an opportunity to reflect on the students' performance and range of ability levels."
  2. "Students at this grade level must assume considerable responsibility for the success of any assignment; this prepares them to succeed in higher education."
  3. "I hear you saying that you were unhappy with students' performance. We can work together to set rigorous instructional goals and identify strategies to reach those goals."
  4. "There will always be students who do not understand complex concepts; we can only try to develop their thinking skills and maintain rigorous standards."
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because it acknowledges Ms. O'Toole's response to the students' performance while offering support and guidance in setting goals to address the problem. Option A is incorrect because although encouraging, this response offers no support or guidance in addressing the problem. Option B is incorrect because it puts the responsibility of addressing the problem on the students rather than acknowledging Ms. O'Toole's role as a guide and source of support. Option D is incorrect because it advances tacit acceptance of the problem and absolves Ms. O'Toole from any role in addressing it.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

18. Mr. Ramirez recommends action steps for Ms. O'Toole to follow to ensure that her independent practice meets her instructional goals. Place in the correct sequence the action steps Ms. O'Toole should take when planning and implementing independent practice.

Give students a targeted writing task to complete prior to the lesson

Monitor and cue students to reconsider incorrect perceptions or conclusions

Script out the ideal conclusions that students should draw

First blank
blank blank
Third blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
The correct order of options is 3, 1, 2. Ms. O'Toole should first clarify her parameters for acceptable answers by scripting the ideal conclusions the students should draw. This forms the basis for evaluating student performance. She should then prepare a targeted writing task or similar activity to help students focus on the content and skills to apply in their small-group discussion. Lastly, she should be prepared to circulate among the groups as they work so she can informally evaluate the groups' work and lead students to correct conclusions with brief comments.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

19. Ms. O'Toole seeks advice from Mr. Ramirez about how to plan the lesson for the next day, considering that many students drew inaccurate conclusions about the novel's main character. Which of the following is the best strategy for Mr. Ramirez to recommend?

  1. Asking students to reconsider the previous day's discussion questions during a whole-class meeting
  2. Using direct instruction to point out evidence in the novel that supports the dynamic evolution of the main character
  3. Modeling a think-aloud for students that demonstrates how to cite the novel to support conclusions
  4. Providing students with a scholarly commentary about the roles of the different characters in the novel
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because students have learned the content and interpretative skills to be able to draw valid conclusions in the lessons taught earlier in their novel study. Ms. O'Toole will help the students best by modeling an effective thinking process associated with using evidence from the novel to support conclusions. Option A is incorrect because the students are unlikely to reconsider their conclusions if they are not provided with additional guidance in activating and applying their prior knowledge. Options B and D are incorrect because neither using direct instruction nor providing a scholarly commentary allows students to apply their prior knowledge to reconsider their conclusions.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

20. Mr. Ramirez concludes that Ms. O'Toole will benefit from coaching on how to address the problem of students reinforcing misconceptions or misunderstandings when participating in independent practice. Which of the following is the best recommendation he can give Ms. O'Toole?

  1. Placing students in mixed-ability groups rather than same-ability groups
  2. Anticipating and preparing for errors that individual students or groups might make
  3. Differentiating the content and product rather than the instructional activity
  4. Providing less capable students with questions that require low-level thinking skills
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because a teacher who has taught a unit before can reasonably predict the common misunderstandings and errors that students will make as they learn the content or skills in a lesson. Anticipating and preparing for student errors will allow Ms. O'Toole to put appropriate scaffolding in place for helping students avoid likely misconceptions and misunderstandings. Options A and C are incorrect because neither action alone addresses the problem of students reinforcing misconceptions or misunderstandings. Option D is incorrect because providing students with activities requiring low-level thinking skills may reduce the occurrence of misconceptions and misunderstandings but serves no purpose in advancing their learning.

Questions 21–24 refer to the following information.

Ms. Washington, a high school principal, is hired for a low-performing school and will lead a turnaround initiative. As part of the initiative, Ms. Washington screened all existing faculty and staff at the end of the previous school year against district-developed criteria for effective teachers and did not rehire 25 percent of the team.

Ms. Washington will work with an intervention team composed of campus leadership, teachers, and instructional specialists to ensure significant gains in student achievement within two years. Ms. Washington meets with the campus improvement committee members, who share that staff members are apprehensive about possible changes as a turnaround campus. In response, Ms. Washington prepares facilitation notes for the first faculty meeting and identifies four key points that she will present at the first faculty meeting.

Ms. Washington also sets aside time to review the previous principal's records that document student progress throughout the last school year.

Documents

  1. Ms. Washington's Facilitation Notes for First Faculty Meeting
  2. Campus Profile
  3. STAAR Percent at Approaches Grade Level or Above
  4. Previous Principal's Student Progress Monitoring Chart

Ms. Washington's Facilitation Notes for First Faculty Meeting

Our school has been designated as a low-performing school because our students have underperformed academically for two years. Many turnaround schools have challenges similar to ours in ensuring that all students achieve standards while closing the achievement gaps for students living in poverty, those from low-performing student groups, and students with disabilities.

School turnaround is a challenging undertaking, and studies indicate that strong leadership, professional learning opportunities, use of data for instructional decisions, and a collaborative school culture are successful practices. I intend to provide the strong leadership needed to place our school among those that return to satisfactory performance and look forward to working with you to make that happen.

Key Point 1
Important work needs to be done to improve the curriculum and instruction we are providing our students. Change is difficult. It will be critical that 100% of teachers are open to new collaborative structures and best practices. I will begin joining you at your weekly team meetings to start this work quickly.
Note to self: Those of you who have been here for many years may be resistant to this type of change.

Key Point 2
To begin addressing student performance issues, we must know our students and their needs, home challenges, and academic weaknesses through interim and summative assessments. We need to know each student's mastery, or lack of, after every lesson and concept has been taught. I know this approach is starkly different than what you are used to doing, as many of you have shared that you value your autonomy in planning and instruction, but we must open our doors and begin working together.

Key Point 3
We must stand together, taking risks to achieve our shared campus vision and goals. I will need your ideas, ingenuity, and leadership to develop a new plan that creates new possibilities for our students. Your commitment to these efforts is invaluable!

Key Point 4
We will be working on high-leverage actions that will bring about rapid, measurable progress in some key areas. I will also be implementing equally high-leverage and innovative methods for acknowledging progress toward meeting our academic goals.

Campus Profile
blank Campus Count Campus Percent District State
TOTAL STUDENTS 494 100% 1,786 5,284,252
blank blank blank blank blank
ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION blank blank blank blank
African American 5 1.0% 0.4% 12.6%
Hispanic 422 85.4% 85.0% 52.2%
White 65 13.2% 13.9% 28.5%
American Indian 0 0.0% 0.1% 0.4%
Asian 1 0.2% 0.2% 4.0%
Pacific Islander 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Two or More Races 1 0.2% 0.4% 2.1%
blank blank blank blank blank
Economically Disadvantaged 350 70.8% 70.4% 59.0%
Non-Educationally Disadvantaged 144 29.2% 29.6% 41.0%
English Language Learners (ELL) 19 3.9% 4.9% 18.5%
Students with Disciplinary Placements 16 3.1% 1.4% 1.5%
At-Risk 259 52.4% 53.8% 50.1%
Mobility 102 19.6% 16.6% 16.5%
STAAR Percent at Approaches Grade Level or Above
blank State District Campus African American Hispanic White Special Ed Econ Disadv ELL
END OF COURSE blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank
English I 65% 42% 42% asterisk 40% 80% 28% 42% asterisk
English II 67% 49% 49% asterisk 48% 85% asterisk 49% asterisk
Algebra 78% 48% 46% asterisk 40% 80% 28% 43% asterisk
Biology 87% 75% 75% asterisk 73% 89% 47% 72% asterisk
U.S. History 91% 78% 78% asterisk 77% 88% 42% 70% asterisk

An asterisk (*) is used to mask small numbers in order to comply with the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

Previous Principal's Student Progress Monitoring Chart Percentage of Students Meeting Standard
blank Goal All Students
blank To reach by end of year 1st 9 Weeks Benchmark** 2nd 9 Weeks Benchmark 3rd 9 Weeks Benchmark
English I 65% 50% 51% 53%
English II 67% 55% 58% 58%
Algebra 78% 40% 42% 44%
Biology 87% 65% 67% 68%
U.S. History 91% 65% 70% 72%

**"Benchmarks" refer to cumulative mock STAAR exams administered to students.

Competency 001—The entry-level principal knows how to establish and implement a shared vision and culture of high expectations for all stakeholders (students, staff, parents, and community).

21. Given the characteristics of turnaround schools and the indicators of success, which of the following actions should the principal consider to best proactively address the resistant teachers mentioned in Key Point 1?

  1. Communicating nonnegotiable, goal-oriented expectations for committing to the schoolwide vision and establishing support structures to facilitate the change process
  2. Recruiting new staff in core content areas and special education to support the learning of at-risk students
  3. Planning a campus-wide incentive system to encourage resistant staff to actively promote and support campus change initiatives
  4. Encouraging teachers with the most years of teaching experience to mentor resistant teachers on effective instructional strategies
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because change is necessary, not optional, at a turnaround school to improve student outcomes. Principals should communicate this expectation to staff and frame it in a goal-oriented way that connects them to the plan and motivates them to commit to change efforts. Option B is incorrect because the action described does not directly target resistant teachers. Option C is incorrect because research indicates that using large-group incentives to motivate teachers is not effective and can often have a negative effect on the intended outcome. The use of small-group incentives to get teachers to support a change initiative may be more effective than campus-wide incentives. However, the principal should pursue setting nonnegotiable high expectations and providing support structures to implement and monitor the change process. Option D is incorrect because the number of years of experience is not the most effective criteria to consider when selecting mentor teachers. The principal should consider other criteria when selecting teachers for a mentorship role. Ensuring teacher buy-in, regardless of years of teaching experience, has proven to be most effective. Ms. Washington should spend time working with appropriately selected teachers to pilot desired changes, discussing the implementation process with these teachers before making them mentors.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

22. Which of the following is the primary outcome of systematically implementing and monitoring the instructional data described in Key Point 2 of the principal's facilitation notes?

  1. The school leadership team will have multiple data points about teachers and students to consider when forming action plans for the coming year.
  2. The district administration will have confirmation that the turnaround initiative is being implemented conscientiously.
  3. The review of data sources and facilitation of teacher discussions will identify gaps and improve instructional practices to better support student learning needs.
  4. The stakeholders will have information about progress being made toward moving the school from underperforming to performing satisfactorily.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because with all the needed improvements at a turnaround campus, it is essential to avoid wasting time and resources on actions that are not bringing success. By using data to focus efforts on effective strategies, the principal helps staff improve instructional practices to better support student needs. Option A is incorrect because while this may be a secondary benefit, changes to ineffectual practices need to happen as soon as possible, not at the end of the school year. Option B is incorrect because the primary goal is not to provide confirmation for district administration—this is a secondary benefit. Option D is incorrect because the primary purpose of gathering data is to refine effective instructional strategies, not to share with external stakeholders.

Competency 001—The entry-level principal knows how to establish and implement a shared vision and culture of high expectations for all stakeholders (students, staff, parents, and community).

23. When considering Key Point 3, the principal acknowledges that it will be difficult to sustain and inspire staff through the turnaround initiative. Which of the following actions most clearly demonstrates the principal's commitment to the change process?

  1. Waiting long enough to compile longitudinal evidence that implemented programs are showing positive results
  2. Creating a common purpose when conflicts arise from introducing strategies that may challenge existing district and school norms
  3. Identifying staff members with the leadership potential to continue the turnaround initiative over the long run
  4. Having ready alternate strategies to implement should staff members show resistance to the strategies identified by the school leadership team
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the special circumstances involved with turnaround schools require leaders to innovate, move away from what has not worked in the past, and push to find what works. This process will involve managing the change process in a manner that creates a common understanding and purpose for their work. Option A is incorrect because in a turnaround school it is necessary to take action and monitor changes in other ways that provide data more quickly. Option C is incorrect because identifying and grooming potential teacher leaders is less effective than establishing a common purpose among all teachers as they work toward implementing change. Identifying leadership potential in teachers is helpful to kick-start the change process, but to show a long-term commitment to the change process, the principal needs to combat burnout and develop a common purpose to maintain the persistence needed among teachers. Option D is incorrect because there should be evidence that strategies identified by the team are ineffective, as measured by missed benchmarks, before moving on to alternate strategies.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

24. Ms. Washington recognizes the need for an upgraded approach to assessing and documenting student progress. Which TWO of the following principal actions improve on the previous principal's approach to measuring student progress?

  1. Implementing interim assessments that evaluate what students have learned during each grading period
  2. Establishing and communicating more rigorous goals to students before they complete the benchmark assessments
  3. Disaggregating assessment data and assessment questions to determine an action plan for all student groups
  4. Including a side-by-side comparison of the school's benchmark assessment results and results from campus comparison groups
  5. Incorporating a diagnostic assessment and end-of-year assessment to capture a better range of student growth
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the previous principal's approach of documenting results of a mock STAAR benchmark once every nine weeks is ineffective. This approach does not provide a good picture of student learning of concepts taught each nine weeks. Ms. Washington can improve on this by implementing interim assessments more often that are noncumulative and test students on material learned during a specific period of time. Option C is correct because the previous principal is only looking at the passing rates of all students. This approach does not provide insight into how specific student groups are performing or what content is problematic. Ms. Washington can disaggregate data to gain an idea of how various groups of students are performing (for example, students who are economically disadvantaged, Hispanic students, and students receiving special education services) and if any achievement gaps are present, as is present in STAAR performance data. Then she can work with teachers to develop a better understanding of why students are not performing well on content that has been taught and what action is needed. Option B is incorrect because communicating high expectations is important but will not be sufficient to raise scores. Additionally, the focus of the question is on documenting student progress in a more useful way, not on steps to directly improve student achievement on the tests. Option D is incorrect because schools in campus comparison groups will likely not utilize the same benchmarks. Campus comparison groups are utilized when comparing student results on the same exam (for example, STAAR or EOC). Option E is incorrect because adding a diagnostic and an end-of-year assessment is unlikely to have much of an impact, especially if they follow the same mock STAAR format.

Questions 25–29 refer to the following information.

Ms. Contreras, the principal of Oak Tree Middle School, which is located in an urban area, reviews the campus profile and results from the latest state-mandated assessment. Ms. Contreras observes that the achievement gap has widened between Hispanic and White students and resolves to work toward closing this gap. Ms. Contreras also reviews student and teacher demographics over the last ten years.

Ms. Contreras decides to give an open-ended questionnaire to collect data on teachers' perceptions of their responsiveness to shifting demographics. She discusses some of the most notable open-ended teacher responses during her weekly meeting with the lead teachers from each department.

Ms. Contreras and the department leads, as part of their effort to close achievement gaps, form a plan for helping teachers develop cross-cultural competence so that they are better able to learn and build on the varying cultural and community norms of students and their families. During weekly team meetings, she trains the department leads on how to promote a culturally responsive learning environment. As part of that training, she provides department leads with guidelines to take back to their teams.

Team Meeting Discussion Guidelines

  • Stay actively engaged in the conversation.
  • Accept that there will be some discomfort.
  • Always speak truthfully and sincerely.
  • Recognize that you may not have closure.

Documents

  1. Campus Profile
  2. STAAR Percent at Approaches Grade Level or Above–Current Year
  3. Oak Tree Student and Teacher Demographics
  4. Teacher Questionnaire
Campus Profile
blank Campus Count Campus Percent District State
STUDENTS' ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION blank blank blank blank
African American 92 11.6% 10.1% 12.6%
Hispanic 306 38.5% 28.4% 52.2%
White 326 41.1% 44.5% 28.5%
American Indian 6 0.8% 0.5% 0.4%
Asian 36 4.5% 13.0% 4.0%
Pacific Islander 2 0.3% 0.1% 0.1%
Two or More Races 26 3.3% 3.4% 2.1%
blank blank blank blank blank
Economically Disadvantaged 368 46.3% 32.6% 59.0%
Noneducationally Disadvantaged 426 53.7% 67.4% 41.0%
English Language Learners (ELL) 101 12.7% 15.5% 18.5%
Students with Disciplinary Placements 18 2.2% 1.4% 1.5%
At-Risk 420 52.9% 35.9% 50.1%
Mobility 55 6.8% 10.6% 16.5%
STAAR Percent at Approaches Grade Level or Above—Current Year
blank State District Campus African American Hispanic White Two or More Races Special Ed Econ Disadv ELL
GRADE 6 blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank
Reading 69% 77% 63% 63% 53% 82% asterisk 40% 54% 57%
Mathematics 72% 79% 65% 67% 54% 83% asterisk 42% 53% 60%
GRADE 7 blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank
Reading 71% 79% 64% 64% 54% 85% asterisk 41% 54% 47%
Mathematics 69% 68% 65% 68% 52% 86% asterisk 43% 53% 59%
Writing 69% 77% 67% 69% 50% 82% asterisk 39% 47% 49%
GRADE 8 blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank blank
Reading 87% 92% 69% 71% 57% 89% 86% 43% 53% 65%
Mathematics 82% 87% 67% 69% 54% 85% 83% 44% 58% 62%
Science 75% 79% 65% 67% 53% 84% 82% 40% 52% 59%
Social Studies 63% 72% 63% 65% 52% 83% 80% 41% 49% 53%

An asterisk (*) is used to mask small numbers in order to comply with the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

Oak Tree Student Demographics
blank 10 Years Ago 5 Years Ago Current Year
Hispanic 24% 32% 39%
White 65% 54% 41%
African American 8% 10% 12%
Asian 3% 4% 5%

 

Oak Tree Teacher Demographics
blank 10 Years Ago 5 Years Ago Current Year
Hispanic 20% 21% 23%
White 75% 66% 62%
African American 5% 8% 11%
Asian 0% 5% 0%
Teacher Questionnaire
(65 teachers completed the questionnaire)
Question Likert Scale Responses Sample Teacher Responses
1. To what degree do you tailor instruction to address cultural diversity?
  1. – Not at all (50%)
  2. – Rarely tailor instruction (50%)
  3. – Sometimes tailor instruction
  4. – Often tailor instruction
  5. – Always tailor instruction
  • I try to look past any race or ethnicity differences when I teach a lesson. I don't want students to feel singled out.
  • I focus instructional improvement strictly on TEKS.
  • I promote inquiry and collaboration in my classroom, which meets all students' needs.
2. How comfortable are you with disaggregating assessment data and analyzing disparities in achievement between ethnic groups?
  1. – Not comfortable (20%)
  2. – Slightly comfortable (50%)
  3. – Somewhat comfortable (30%)
  4. – Moderately comfortable
  5. – Extremely comfortable
  • I think focusing on ethnicity can lead to unnecessarily lowering expectations for students.
  • I am comfortable disaggregating data, but I think we should only look at grouping the kids who did poorly on the benchmarks.
3. To what degree does a student's ethnicity affect his or her success in school?
  1. – Not at all (60%)
  2. – Slightly affects (40%)
  3. – Somewhat affects
  4. – Moderately affects
  5. – Greatly affects
  • I don't think ethnicity or race has an impact on students' ability to succeed in my class.
  • I am African American and grew up with a strict mother; if I made it through school without feeling I was being treated differently, then these kids should be able to also.
4. What do you think is the primary reason for the existing achievement gap at our school? n/a
  • Student effort is the primary reason. If students work hard, they can achieve. The students who are scoring low on tests are not putting the same effort in as the students who are doing well.
  • A lack of resource teachers is the primary reason. We need more teachers who can pull kids out for small-group interventions.
  • I believe that all students have had an equal opportunity to succeed at high levels. Some students are just naturally more inclined to succeed and others are not, regardless of how much support that I provide.

Competency 011—The entry-level principal knows how to provide ethical leadership by advocating for children and ensuring student access to effective educators, programs, and services.

25. After receiving questions from the department leads about the new focus, Ms. Contreras should articulate that the primary goal of the initiative is to improve equity by

  1. celebrating the school as a hub of multiculturalism.
  2. recognizing students' cultures as assets to the learning process.
  3. promoting teachers' acceptance of diverse cultural norms.
  4. encouraging positive relationships among a range of cultural groups.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because improving outcomes for underperforming student groups is a primary concern. Since demographics have shifted and an achievement gap exists, the school needs to examine how well it is serving students. In order to make progress toward equity, the school should work to include the perspectives from these different cultures in a way that strengthens the learning process. There is a growing body of research showing that valuing and learning about student culture and perspective broadens a teacher's ability to connect with students, overcome challenges, and align methods to better engage students and enhance students' cognitive performance. Option A is incorrect because celebrating diversity will not directly affect the achievement gap. Celebrating multiculturalism often takes the form of superficial or isolated gestures and events that lead to neither improved student learning nor a cohesive campus culture. Option C is incorrect because promoting tolerance or acceptance is a low expectation. The goal is for teachers to embrace cultural diversity and see students' differences as an asset and source of strength that can enhance student learning. Teachers must become knowledgeable about their students' distinctive cultural backgrounds so they can translate that knowledge into effective instruction and enriched curriculum. Option D is incorrect because improving relationships between students will not necessarily eliminate potentially harmful assumptions and low expectations that some teachers have about students and their ability to achieve.

Competency 011—The entry-level principal knows how to provide ethical leadership by advocating for children and ensuring student access to effective educators, programs, and services.

26. As Ms. Contreras uses the teacher questionnaire responses to guide an initial discussion with the department leads, she should primarily keep in mind that

  1. teachers will need support in overcoming personal blind spots in order to harness cultural differences to improve learning.
  2. teachers need to reassess curriculum and support processes to better ensure academic success for students in all cultural groups.
  3. teachers are culturally aware and culturally competent but need more direction in being advocates for the cultural proficiency of others.
  4. teachers may require intensive support to enhance their instructional strategies to remove inherent perceptions of the superiority of specific cultures.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the sample of survey responses indicates that teachers do not have a keen awareness of cultural differences. The responses show that personal blind spots are interfering with teachers' ability to analyze factors that may be contributing to the achievement gap. Option B is incorrect because reassessing curriculum and support structures for all students is an important step that should be completed after addressing teacher perceptions. The principal must first establish a foundation for understanding cultural proficiency as a prerequisite for achieving equity. Option C is incorrect because the questionnaire responses indicate a general lack of awareness of cultural issues which would need to be addressed first. Option D is incorrect because the questionnaire does not support the conclusion that teachers believe that any culture is superior to another. Thus, providing intensive support about teachers' perceptions of the superiority of specific cultures would be ineffective.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

27. As part of the department meetings, Ms. Contreras and the department leads review the questionnaire and decide to make the first question a key focus. As teams reflect and create collaborative goals for improvement, the primary focus should be on

  1. ensuring culturally relevant curricula are delivered in a way that addresses students' interests and learning styles.
  2. equipping all teachers with the tools necessary for communicating curriculum expectations to diverse families.
  3. fostering a culture of respect in classrooms through character education curricula that integrate schoolwide norms.
  4. confirming that the instructional focus is based on the results of interim assessments broken down by curriculum standards.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the first question asks about teachers' ability to tailor instruction to meet the needs of culturally diverse learners. Ensuring that culturally relevant curricula address students' interests and learning styles can remove potential barriers and support students in accessing content, and ultimately increase student outcomes. Option B is incorrect because focusing on communication with families and communities does not connect well to the results about how teachers are tailoring instruction. Option C is incorrect because focusing on character education curricula, while useful, does not address the root issues around the curriculum and instruction being implemented that may be affecting student achievement among student groups. Option D is incorrect because developing an instructional focus based on interim assessments, while useful, will not ensure culturally relevant curricula are implemented. Additionally, breaking down interim assessment data by curriculum standards is not deep enough, since performance gaps are developing between student groups rather than across standards.

Competency 006—The entry-level principal knows how to promote high-quality teaching by using selection, placement, and retention practices to promote teacher excellence and growth.

28. The department lead develops the following plan to begin working with the English teachers to address the achievement gap.

English Department Meeting 1:

  • Review with teachers the meeting guidelines and the principal's expectations for student performance
  • Discuss possible types of student learning data that can be reviewed to identify student-learning problems
  • Develop a calendar of key assessments to review in conjunction with the assessment and student samples
  • Review student performance by student group, including ethnicity

During meeting 1, several teachers are resistant to the expectation and do not see value in looking at student performance by student group. Teachers feel that some of their students are performing well and that other student groups need to put forth more effort.

Which of the following pieces of coaching advice should the principal provide to the department leader to help facilitate the change process?

  1. "Early in the data review process, you should try to refocus teachers on data review timelines and record the team's concerns as they are shared. Let's take a look at the assessment calendar the team developed and see if it is reasonable for teachers' busy schedules."
  2. "It is critical for you to allow a relaxed dialogue structure that encourages teachers to be active in dialogue if they are comfortable or gives them the option of joining the conversation later. Let's design some broad guiding questions that you can use to frame the discussions."
  3. "Issues of ethnicity and culture should be secondary when examining student performance data and engaging in collaborative inquiry to encourage teachers to delve into the data. Let's try to develop a template you can use to focus the conversations on open-ended questions the team can generate in response to the data."
  4. "Each individual's response to differences in ethnicity and culture deeply affects how he or she interprets data and has a profound impact on student learning. Let's develop a meeting protocol you can use to raise teachers' awareness of their own cultural proficiency and ensure that your team digs into the data and assessment questions."
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the department lead has not planned to take the time needed up front to establish the foundation needed for cultural competence when analyzing data. In addition to the principal's set of norms that can help the teachers engage in these difficult conversations, the department leader should establish a solid foundation of cultural proficiency and then look at student performance with assessment questions in hand. Option A is incorrect because there is no evidence that the teachers are unwilling to participate due to lack of time. Option B is incorrect because the principal has already provided guiding norms for discussions that the department lead should try to implement as part of the team meetings. Option C is incorrect because the team needs to address performance differences between student groups to become culturally proficient; questions about ethnicity and culture should be at the center of data discussions in order to improve results.

Competency 009—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively determine goals and implement strategies aligned with the school vision that support teacher effectiveness and positive student outcomes.

29. After Ms. Contreras works for a year to improve equity at the school, which TWO of the following pieces of data would quantify that important improvements have been made at the campus?

  1. An increase in mathematics STAAR results in the sixth and seventh grades
  2. A change in teacher demographics to more closely resemble student demographics
  3. A decrease in the number of English learners receiving services at the school
  4. A shift in results on the questionnaire to show that the majority of teachers do not think ethnicity affects student success
  5. An increase in Hispanic student performance on STAAR reading at all three grade levels
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because a change in teacher demographics to better reflect the diversity of the student body would signal that the school has made efforts to ensure that role models are present in the school for all student groups. Having positive role models, such as teachers of similar demographic backgrounds as students, can increase performance due to a greater sense of belonging, improve what students define as attainable, and encourage high expectations for all students. Option E is correct because Hispanic student performance on STAAR reading is below 60 percent for the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade at the beginning of this initiative, well below campus and district averages. An increase would show gains at all three levels and signify systemic improvements. Option A is incorrect because without seeing the breakdown in results by student population, the principal cannot see if gains were made by student groups that showed an achievement gap. Option C is incorrect because a decrease in the number of English learners receiving services would not be appropriate data to use to signify improvements in student equity. The number of EL students is determined by which students qualify for these services. Option D is incorrect because question three specifically addressed student success and shows that 60% of teachers respond that ethnicity does not affect student success. An increase would indicate that teachers do not understand that their personal bias of students' ethnicities can be a factor in students' success.

Questions 30–33 refer to the following information.

Mr. Flores, an elementary principal, creates a schedule of activities at the beginning of the year and uses it weekly to ensure his time is used effectively to achieve school goals for student achievement. As part of his vision for a successful school, he develops a checklist that he uses as the foundation for collecting evidence during his scheduled classroom walk-throughs and provides the checklist to teachers after visiting classrooms.

On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings, Mr. Flores meets with the administrative team to check in, discuss pertinent school issues, and clarify duties. He uses an agenda to guide these meetings and document the topics that were addressed.

In addition to conducting frequent meetings with the administrative team, Mr. Flores schedules time each week to lead collaborative grade-level teams. During these meetings, the grade-level chair records minutes and provides copies to all team members.

Documents

  1. Mr. Flores' Weekly Schedule
  2. Classroom Walk-Through Checklist
  3. Administrative Team Meeting Agenda
Mr. Flores' Weekly Schedule
Time Monday
(8 walk-throughs)
Tuesday
(6 walk-throughs)
Wednesday
(5 walk-throughs)
Thursday
(9 walk-throughs)
Friday
(8 walk-throughs)
7:00 –
8:00
Help with bus and car drop-off Monitor halls and greet staff Help with bus and car drop-off Monitor halls and greet staff Help with bus and car drop-off
Administrative team meeting blank Administrative team meeting blank Administrative team meeting
8:00 –
9:00
Walk-through- Pre-K Class 1 Walk-through- Pre-K Class 2 Walk-through- Pre-K Class 3 Walk-through- Pre-K Class 4 Walk-through-
PE
Walk-through- Kindergarten
Class 1
Walk-through- Kindergarten
Class 2
Walk-through- Kindergarten
Class 3
Walk-through- Kindergarten
Class 4
Walk-through- Kindergarten
Class 5
9:00 –
10:00
Walk-through- First-grade
Class 1
Walk-through- First-grade
Class 2
Facilitate kindergarten team meeting Walk-through- First-grade
Class 3
Walk-through- Music
blank PTA board meeting Walk-through-
First-grade Class 4
blank
10:00 –
11:00
Facilitate fifth-grade team meeting Walk-through- Second-grade Class 1 Facilitate fourth-grade team meeting Walk-through- Second-grade Class 3 Walk-through- Special Education Resource
Walk-through- Second-
grade Class 2
Walk-through- Second-
grade Class 4
Walk-through-
Art
11:00 –
12:00
Walk-through- Third-grade
Class 1
Facilitate third-grade team meeting Walk-through- Third-grade
Class 3
Walk-through- Third-grade
Class 4
Facilitate second-grade team meeting
Walk-through- Third-grade Class 2 Weekly district principals' meeting (off campus) Lunch and answer e-mails and return calls Lunch and answer e-mails and return calls
12:00 –
1:00
Lunch and answer e-mails and return calls Lunch and answer e-mails and return calls
1:00 –
2:00
Walk-through- Fourth-grade Class 1 Facilitate first-grade team meeting Walk-through- Fourth-grade Class 4 Walk-through- Library
Walk-through- Fourth-grade Class 2 Walk-through- Fourth-grade Class 3 Facilitate Pre-K team meeting Walk-through- Fourth-grade Class 5
2:00 –
3:00
Walk-through- Fifth-grade
Class 1
Walk-through- Fifth-grade
Class 2
Walk-through- Fifth-grade
Class 3
Walk-through- Fifth-grade
Class 4
Walk-through- Fifth-grade
Class 5
Monitor dismissal Monitor dismissal Monitor dismissal Monitor dismissal Monitor dismissal
3:00 –
4:00
Site-based decision-making committee Answer parent calls and respond to e-mails Faculty meeting Complete campus and district reports Answer parent calls and respond to e-mails
Classroom Walk-Through Checklist
Expectation Yes No
Daily learning objectives are posted and easily seen. blank blank
Word wall is present for each content area. blank blank
Color-coded behavior management system is utilized. blank blank
Labeled craft sticks are used to ensure equity in calling on students. blank blank
Student desks are placed in groups of four or five. blank blank
Students are engaged during lessons. blank blank
Clear procedures are in place for independent work. blank blank
Workstations and centers are organized and neat. blank blank
Lesson plans are easily accessible in a binder. blank blank
Administrative Team Meeting | AGENDA
Date: 9/18 Time: 7:30 AM Location: Mr. Flores' office
Meeting called by Mr. Flores Attendees

Ms. Markey (Assistant Principal)
Ms. Thomas (Instructional Coach)
Mr. Farrad (Magnet/GT/Title I Coordinator)
Type of meeting Check in
Facilitator Mr. Flores
Updates Person responsible
Discipline data Ms. Markey
Attendance data Mr. Farrad
Instructional materials Ms. Thomas
Action items Person responsible Deadline
Conduct training at the next faculty meeting on how to use the new schoolwide behavior management system.  

Ms. Markey

 

2 weeks

Create a bulletin board graph that shows the school's increase in student attendance percentages.  

Mr. Farrad

 

1 week

Complete inventory of all consumable and nonconsumable textbooks. Ms. Thomas 2 weeks
In preparation for facilitating collaborative team meetings:
Prepare agendas and materials for next week's collaborative team meetings. Mr. Flores 1 week
Review progress monitoring protocols. Mr. Flores 1 week
Analyze grade-level benchmark assessment data by standard. Mr. Flores 1 week
Create a new lesson plan format that highlights aspects of the walk-through checklist. Mr. Flores 1 week

Notes:

Competency 008—The entry-level principal knows how to focus on improving student outcomes through organizational collaboration, resiliency, and change management.

30. After analyzing his schedule, Mr. Flores realizes that he has multiple areas for improvement. Which TWO of the following changes should Mr. Flores make to ensure effectiveness as an instructional leader?

  1. Scheduling time throughout the day to answer e-mails, address discipline referrals, and return calls
  2. Moving weekly administrative team meetings to the end of the instructional day
  3. Varying the times of day in which individual teachers are observed
  4. Reducing the number and duration of walk-throughs to incorporate coaching conferences
  5. Facilitating all collaborative team meetings on the same day of the week
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because given that the principal's current schedule is repeating, he is observing individual teachers at the same time of day each week. The time of day should be varied to capture a more accurate picture of what happens in the classroom at different points in the day and during different subjects. Option D is correct because the principal currently has scheduled many observations without planning time to meet with teachers to discuss feedback individually. The principal should adjust his practice to include an observation cycle that includes debriefs following individual observations. Option A is incorrect because while it is appropriate to block out time to answer e-mails, address discipline referrals, and make calls, doing so does not address the issue of completing effective observations as part of instructional leadership responsibilities. Option B is incorrect because moving the administrative team meetings to the end of the day instead of having them before school starts is unlikely to have any significant impact on the principal's efficacy. Option E is incorrect because it may not work to hold seven collaborative team meetings on the same day of the week. This would take up the entire school day for the principal, inhibiting him from observing classroom instruction across various times, contexts, and subjects.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

31. Mr. Flores currently uses his checklist as the primary tool for documenting a teacher's performance during a walk-through. Which TWO of the following identify the significant drawbacks of relying on the checklist?

  1. There are no classroom management practices that contribute to an effective instructional environment.
  2. There is no continuum of performance expectations that accommodates teacher effectiveness and reflection.
  3. The schoolwide nonnegotiables cannot be feasibly implemented by either novice or experienced teachers.
  4. The limited range of instructional considerations do not help the observer document relevant evidence.
  5. The statements rely on judgments, which are subjective and prone to inconsistencies.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because a rubric contains a progressive continuum of performance expectations that better supports teacher reflection and development. Option D is correct because the checklist is overly simplistic and does not focus on student learning. It lists a series of nonnegotiable practices and environmental considerations, but it does not lend itself to collecting salient evidence about teaching and learning. Option A is incorrect because the checklist does include some classroom management practices that would help support an effective instructional environment (for example, a behavior management system or clear procedures). Option C is incorrect because the nonnegotiables on the checklist are reasonable. They could be feasibly implemented by both novice and experienced teachers. Option E is incorrect because the statements have been standardized. While the principal's use of the checklist may be somewhat subjective, the use of a simple "yes" or "no" limits the subjectivity.

Competency 006—The entry-level principal knows how to promote high-quality teaching by using selection, placement, and retention practices to promote teacher excellence and growth.

32. In order to more effectively utilize Ms. Markey, Mr. Farrad, and Ms. Thomas, the principal should first consider

  1. training them to take on instructional leadership roles and dividing coaching responsibilities based on teacher need and instructional expertise.
  2. encouraging them to develop their own action items and deadlines, based on the most critical needs of students and teachers.
  3. leveraging their expertise by asking them to facilitate the weekly grade-level collaborative teacher team meetings.
  4. using their knowledge of data systems to catalyze a schoolwide culture of collaborative inquiry and data analysis.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because based on the administrative team's meeting agenda, Ms. Markey, Mr. Farrad, and Ms. Thomas are not being utilized as instructional leaders. They are currently tasked more with managerial duties and other ancillary tasks. Although these tasks may be important, the principal should work to ensure each member of his team contributes to instructional improvement by creating structures and processes that encourage their involvement and develop their knowledge and skills in this area. Option B is incorrect because the team should collaborate on action items and deadlines. Although the principal needs to better leverage the team's leadership potential, it is not effective to simply assign them to create action items without any guidance. Option C is incorrect because although the principal does need to delegate leadership of the weekly grade-level meetings, it would be more effective to delegate leadership to the teachers themselves. Option D is incorrect because, although this may become a shared initiative that is appropriate for the school, the principal should first make sure that all members of the leadership team engage in instructional coaching to ensure that all teachers have instructional support.

Competency 006—The entry-level principal knows how to promote high-quality teaching by using selection, placement, and retention practices to promote teacher excellence and growth.

33. After evaluating the action items from the administrative team meeting, Mr. Flores should prioritize

  1. working with lead teachers to ensure that the increase in student attendance is maintained through the next grading period.
  2. creating a lesson plan format that aligns with the walk-through checklist that he uses daily in teachers' classrooms.
  3. building the leadership capacity of lead teachers by working with them to create a shared sense of ownership for their team meetings.
  4. establishing consistent progress-monitoring protocols that teachers can use with their intervention groups.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the agenda shows that Mr. Flores is preparing agendas and materials for the next week's collaborative team meetings. Teacher leaders, rather than the principal, should be trained to facilitate these weekly meetings. It is an effective practice for increasing leadership capacity and building a shared sense of ownership of school vision and outcomes. Option A is incorrect because, while working with teachers to track progress toward attendance goals will be helpful, it is not the most impactful adjustment Mr. Flores can make in this situation. Giving priority to supporting the leadership capacity of lead teachers to plan and facilitate weekly team meetings is a more important practice that promotes teacher excellence and growth. Option B is incorrect because teachers' lesson plans should not align with the walk-through checklist, since the walk-through checklist is deficient and does not provide a continuum of teacher expectations for teachers to reflect on. Option D is incorrect because although teachers will need to plan for progress monitoring as part of implementing interventions, this task should be done by the teachers.

Questions 34–38 refer to the following information.

Ms. Okeke is hired as principal of Maron Elementary, a pre-K–5 school in an urban district. Maron Elementary currently has three classrooms of four-year-old prekindergarten students, all of whom are taught by monolingual teachers with English as a Second Language certifications. Between 90% and 95% of the twelve English Learners (ELs) in prekindergarten classes speak Spanish as their first language.

Ms. Okeke establishes the following goals for the school's prekindergarten program:

  1. Promote instruction that aligns with the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines.
  2. Ensure that 100% of prekindergarten students are kindergarten ready by the end of any given school year.
  3. Close any existing achievement gaps between prekindergarten student groups.

 

After the first semester, Ms. Okeke examines data related to kindergarten readiness in order to target areas of need. She then reviews the prekindergarten guidelines and expected outcomes and uses them as a reference to conduct classroom observations of each prekindergarten class.

Documents

  1. Skill-Specific Kindergarten Readiness Data for Current School Year
  2. Anecdotal Records/Notes by a Prekindergarten Teacher, Mr. Auckland
  3. Walk-through Form: Classroom Environment and Language and Communication
Skill-Specific Kindergarten Readiness Data for Current School Year
Domain Assessed Percent of Students that Met the Beginning-of-Year Target Percent of Students that Met the Middle-of-Year Target
I. Emergent Literacy–Reading
Phonemic awareness: syllable segmenting 17% 41%
Phonemic awareness: initial sounds 18% 41%
Alphabet knowledge: letter names 20% 50%
Concepts of print: distinguishing print elements and direction 11% 45%
Comprehension of text read aloud 26% 42%
II. Emergent Literacy–Writing
Writing conventions: first name 18% 30%
Writing conventions: letters 17% 30%
III. Language and Communication
Follows single and multistep directions 20% 41%
Speech production (intelligible speech) 70% 76%
Expressive vocabulary 17% 23%
Receptive vocabulary 26% 30%
Uses common phrases and academic language 15% 23%
Speaks in complete sentences 20% 24%
IV. Mathematics
Numeral identification 26% 52%
Verbal and tactile counting 20% 50%
Adding and subtracting 18% 23%
Geometry and spatial sense language 27% 48%
Comparison 14% 45%
V. Health and Wellness
Gross motor skills 59% 61%
Fine motor skills 48% 64%
Self-care, self-awareness and self-regulation 41% 59%
Relationship skills 27% 56%
Communicates wishes, feelings, and needs 30% 50%
Motivation and engagement 55% 70%
Anecdotal Records/Notes by a Prekindergarten Teacher, Mr. Auckland (table 1)
Activity: Learning Centers
Date & Time: 9/15 9:25 a.m.
Focus of observation: Language End of Prekindergarten Year Outcome: I.B.2.b Child can communicate basic emotions/feelings.
Student 1–Sammy Teacher models in dramatic play center how to prepare a snack for a friend. Sammy becomes angry and throws the kitchen items into the sink saying,"I don't need to help in the kitchen."
Student 2–Gabriella Teacher tries to get Gabriella's attention after she hides under the table in the block center. Gabriella says, "I wus wistening to fend."
Student 3–Kieran Kieran is working in the art center when another student asks to take the cup of red paint. Kieran says, "Can we put it in the middle to share?"
Student 4–Ignacio Ignacio is working calmly in the science center sorting plastic animals. Another student comes and suggests sorting the animals by whether they walk or fly. Ignacio becomes angry and yells "Tey are mine!" before scooping up all of the animals.
Anecdotal Records/Notes by a Prekindergarten Teacher, Mr. Auckland (table 2)
Activity: Learning Centers
Date & Time: 9/20 1:20 p.m.
Focus of observation: Behavior End of Prekindergarten Year Outcome: I.B.1.b Child takes care of and manages classroom materials.
Student 1–Sammy Sammy struggles with cleaning up his work in the art center. He asks another student, "Can you help me?"
Student 2–Gabriella Gabriella works quietly in the puzzle center but seems to have taken apart five puzzles without putting any of them back together.
Student 3–Kieran Kieran is organizing blocks by size. He says, "Blocks have to fit together on the shelf like a puzzle."
Student 4–Ignacio Ignacio seems frustrated with the science center. He asks, "I already seen these animals. Can I move to art?"
Anecdotal Records/Notes by a Prekindergarten Teacher, Mr. Auckland (table 3)
Activity: Learning Centers
Date & Time: 9/27 9:25 a.m.
Focus of observation: Vocabulary End of Prekindergarten Year Outcome: II.D.1 Child uses a wide variety of words to label and describe people, places, things and actions.
Student 1–Sammy Teacher talks with Sammy, who is having trouble naming objects related to the topic of clothing.
Student 2–Gabriella Teacher puts on a sun hat in the dramatic play center and talks with Gabriella about wearing a hat on a hot day. Teacher asks Gabriella about clothing to wear on a cold day. Gabriella is not able to describe a type of clothing that you wear on a cold day.
Student 3–Kieran Teacher asks Kieran to look at pictures of clothing and sort the pictures by type of clothing. Kieran says, "How do I know which go together?"
Student 4–Ignacio Ignacio comes to the dramatic play center and calls every item "clothing" rather than by its appropriate name.
Walk-through Form: Classroom Environment and Language and Communication
Prekindergarten Teacher: Mr. Auckland Date: 9/27
Observation Criteria Observed Not Observed Comments
Classroom Environment
Classroom space is organized into distinct learning centers. X  blank Eight learning centers in rotation; multiple materials in each related to the theme of clothing
Daily schedule includes small group instruction. X  blank Observed Mr. Auckland meet with a small group for phonemic awareness instruction; he utilized appropriate prompting and questioning but provided no opportunity for student-to-student interaction.
Teacher maximizes instructional time by using effective classroom routines, preparing materials ahead of time, and planning for transitions. X  blank  blank
Students have access to technology to support learning.  blank X Three student computers available, but not utilized as a center; lesson plans indicate weekly computer lab time for students to use for the digital early reading program.
Language and Communication
Teacher introduces new vocabulary. X  blank Mr. Auckland introduces twelve new vocabulary words about clothing (including "beret" and "blouse") and has an interactive game to have students learn about the different names of clothing.
Back and forth conversation exchanges occur between teacher and students. X  blank  blank
Teacher names/labels various items, materials, and centers. X  blank  blank
Teacher scaffolds students' language and encourages conversation.  blank X  blank
Students' work samples are displayed. X  blank Work samples hanging on the walls included artwork and cut-and-paste activities
A variety of age-appropriate books are available. X  blank Primarily fiction; a good range of culturally diverse fiction titles for read-alouds available
Anecdotal records are frequently used to document student language and communication. X  blank Observed Mr. Auckland taking anecdotal records during the literacy centers; students seemed to struggle with using vocabulary to identify clothing and to describe items and pictures in the centers.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

34. Concerned by trends shown in the kindergarten readiness data and the anecdotal records, Ms. Okeke resolves to work with teachers to identify how to better support students within Domain III: Language and Communication. Which THREE of the following strategies support the development and progress of student language and communication?

  1. Including authentic read-alouds daily to ensure exposure to a variety of words
  2. Pairing students with similar developmental language skills together for group activities
  3. Having students trace high-frequency and sight words with their fingers
  4. Facilitating ongoing conversations about activities that are taking place in the classroom
  5. Incorporating dramatic play organized around a carefully chosen theme
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Options A, D, and E are correct because read-alouds that include explanations of targeted vocabulary can support word learning. The teacher should encourage conversations about activities that are taking place in the classroom in order to expose students to language associated with the immediate context. Dramatic play organized around a carefully chosen theme can support word learning by encouraging students to utilize new and situational vocabulary in authentic ways. Option B is incorrect because student groups should be heterogeneously mixed to better promote richer language and communication interactions among students as they learn through conversing. Offering students opportunities to engage with other students at higher levels of communication will advance the skills of all students within the groups. Option C is incorrect because tracing high-frequency and sight words promotes tactile and fine-motor learning, not expressive language.

Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

35. Ms. Okeke wants to ensure that there is a significant increase in the percentage of students achieving kindergarten readiness within Domain II: Emergent Literacy — Writing by the end of the current year. To most effectively work toward this goal, she wants to ensure that the prekindergarten team recognizes that students progress through developmental stages as they learn to write. Which of the following should the teachers identify as a critical prerequisite to the tested skills?

  1. Applying letter-sound correspondence consistently to monosyllabic words
  2. Recognizing that environmental print and other texts convey meaning
  3. Developing fine-motor skills that support legibility and stamina
  4. Using invented spelling to represent common words and phrases
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because recognizing that environmental print (words that appear in everyday life, e.g., signs, labels, logos) conveys meaning is a foundational understanding for emergent writers. Before students can communicate an understandable written message to others, they must first comprehend that written words carry meaning. Option A is incorrect because prekindergarten students are not expected to consistently apply letter-sound correspondence. Option C is incorrect because fine-motor skills will develop over time; prekindergarten students are not expected to have refined motor skills yet. Option D is incorrect because although some prekindergarten students will experiment with invented spelling, this is not a prerequisite skill for writing.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

36. Based on the Walk-through Form and Anecdotal Records, Ms. Okeke should suggest which THREE of the following improvements to Mr. Auckland's instructional approach?

  1. Gather information about students' prior knowledge before introducing new vocabulary
  2. Select developmentally appropriate content vocabulary
  3. Use a visual graphic organizer to help generalize new vocabulary
  4. Provide repeated exposure to new vocabulary in multiple contexts
  5. Create a word wall that includes every vocabulary word and its definition
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because Mr. Auckland introduced the students to twelve vocabulary words, including "beret," which was not a developmentally appropriate word that students in prekindergarten needed to know. Option C is correct because the use of graphic organizers visually shows the connections between the meanings of words or phrases and helps students to categorize words and see relationships between concepts. Option D is correct because Mr. Auckland introduced twelve new vocabulary words related to clothing which he then expected students to apply during centers. Students need multiple repetitions of words to achieve understanding and mastery. Option A is incorrect because gathering information about students' prior knowledge will not address the problems documented in the Walk-through Form and Anecdotal Records regarding using content-relevant vocabulary words and providing multiple repetitions. Option E is incorrect because best practice would focus the word wall on targeted, relevant vocabulary words displayed in a child-friendly manner.

Competency 004—The entry-level principal knows how to monitor and assess classroom instruction to promote teacher effectiveness and student achievement.

37. After reviewing the anecdotal records, Ms. Okeke and Mr. Auckland discuss how to better support Ignacio as an English learner. Which TWO of the following strategies should Mr. Auckland implement to address the concerns noted about Ignacio?

  1. Partnering Ignacio with monolingual English-speaking classmates
  2. Allowing Ignacio to switch centers as needed when he experiences difficulty
  3. Using nonverbal cues to remind Ignacio and other students about center expectations
  4. Previewing instructional materials with Ignacio before he engages in a center
  5. Engaging in interactive play with Ignacio and other students during centers
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because Mr. Auckland can preview instructional materials with Ignacio before he engages in a center to provide instruction on vocabulary and clarify misconceptions. This action will better ensure that Ignacio engages effectively in the center activities. Option E is correct because Mr. Auckland can engage in interactive play to model appropriate language to use in peer-to-peer interactions to better support Ignacio's expressive language development. Option A is incorrect because all prekindergarten students are developing their language and communication skills. While partnering Ignacio with a monolingual classmate is a common practice, it does not support Ignacio's language and communication development as effectively as intentional scaffolding and modeling by the teacher. Option B is incorrect because the center activities are likely at or above his frustration level of development in expressive language skills. So, allowing Ignacio to switch centers when he is frustrated does not address the root cause of his frustration. Option C is incorrect because Mr. Auckland needs to model appropriate expressive language skills in addition to using nonverbal cues as scaffolds to support Ignacio's expressive language development.

Competency 006—The entry-level principal knows how to promote high-quality teaching by using selection, placement, and retention practices to promote teacher excellence and growth.

38. During their discussion, Mr. Auckland shares that he does not feel confident in creating math centers to support student learning. He is concerned about the middle-of-the-year mathematics data and wants to develop centers that help students more effectively become kindergarten ready. Ms. Okeke schedules time to work with Mr. Auckland on creating a center that addresses the area of greatest need. Which of the following centers is most developmentally appropriate?

  1. Providing a foam die labeled from zero to five and having students roll the die to determine how many plastic animals to remove from a set and then how many are left in the set
  2. Providing a written practice sheet on basic mathematics sentences for numbers from one to five
  3. Providing egg cartons and plastic eggs and having students sort by color while they place each individual egg within the carton
  4. Providing containers of different shapes and sizes and having students fill them with sand or water to determine which containers hold more or less
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because this activity is developmentally appropriate and provides a hands-on independent option for students to practice subtraction, which addresses one component of the area of greatest need. Option B is incorrect because asking students to complete a written practice sheet would be developmentally inappropriate. Option C is incorrect because sorting by colors is a classifying skill. Option D is incorrect because students are demonstrating comparison skills.

Questions 39–44 refer to the following information.

Dr. Basara is the newly hired principal of Valley Palms Elementary in Banhardt ISD, located in an urban area. In the prior school year, Banhardt ISD introduced a mandatory K–3 Literacy for All initiative for elementary schools. The district leadership team organized the initiative, outlined the expectations for implementation, and led an initial overview session for all relevant campus personnel.

At the end of the year, the district conducted a comprehensive evaluation of Literacy for All implementation and shared the results of the evaluation with all elementary principals. The evaluation examined each individual campus and revealed that the initiative was not consistently implemented. Dr. Weber, the district's superintendent, recognized that the program was not effective in its current form. Dr. Weber decided to decentralize the initiative and shifted much of the facilitation responsibilities to the elementary principals. Her goal is for principals to develop a practical plan that adapts Literacy for All to meet the needs of individual campuses.

Dr. Basara, who sees value in the core components of Literacy for All, wants the program to be successful at Valley Palms. She begins by reviewing the program evaluation and facilitating a focus group in order to better understand how to adapt the initiative to ensure it is implemented effectively and with fidelity. Afterward, she creates an implementation plan for the new school year.

Documents

  1. District Literacy Initiative for Elementary Campuses
  2. Snapshot of Literacy for All District Program Evaluation
  3. Teacher Survey Results
  4. Literacy for All Implementation Plan: Valley Palms Elementary

District Literacy Initiative for Elementary Campuses
Literacy for All is a comprehensive literacy plan that aims to build a strong foundation in reading and writing by the end of third grade. It includes a balanced approach that combines six language- and literature-rich components designed to develop proficiency in reading and writing. Our goal is to have every student reading at or above grade level by the end of third grade.

It is the expectation of the district that evidence of the six components is in the lesson plans of each K–3 teacher and that no less than 90 minutes of each school day be devoted to the six components exclusively. The informal reading inventory (IRI) is required and should be administered to each student within two weeks of his or her enrollment date in order to ensure appropriate leveled reading and grouping.

Six Components of Literacy for All
Read-Aloud/Shared Reading—During a read-aloud, students have the opportunity to listen to the teacher read literature from multiple genres that may be above the students' reading level. In a shared reading, students see the text, observe the teacher reading it with fluency and expression, and are invited to read along.
Guided Reading—The teacher selects books from a variety of genres for students who are grouped by specific instructional levels derived from reading assessments. The students are presented with prompts and questions before, during, and after their reading that target specific reading skills.
Independent Reading—Students engage with texts on their independent reading level and practice the strategies they have learned during read-alouds, shared reading, and guided reading. Teachers help students select books that they can manage without teacher support in order to build fluency.
Word Work—Word work involves phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, high-frequency word recognition, and vocabulary instruction. Students experiment with words, word patterns and families and engage in structural analysis to better understand how words work.
Shared Writing—The teacher and student create compositions together, with the teacher acting as a scribe and modeling how to write. Both the teacher and students contribute their thoughts during shared writing.
Independent Writing—Each student keeps a daily independent writing folder in which the teacher documents evidence of drafting, revising, editing, conferencing, and publishing. Students take ownership of their work but are still monitored and supported by the teacher.

Snapshot of Literacy for All District Program Evaluation
The table below summarizes the results of the benchmark running record assessments (a component of IRIs) for the beginning of the year (BOY), middle of the year (MOY), and end of the year (EOY).

blank BOY MOY EOY
% of students meeting target District Valley Palms District Valley Palms District Valley Palms
Oral reading fluency and accuracy 44% 51% 42% 48% 44% 47%
Oral response (comprehension) 43% 50% 42% 48% 40% 46%

Summary of trends observed during district's evaluation of classroom practices at Valley Palms

  • 54% of K–3 classrooms were organized and arranged appropriately in accordance with Literacy for All expectations for structuring the physical environment.
  • 50% of second- and third-grade teachers implemented daily read-alouds.
  • 49% of teachers were able to quickly locate their class's IRI results.
  • 40% of teachers provided documentation that indicated IRI results were used to inform small-group instruction.
  • 34% of lessons audited showed evidence of all six Literacy for All components.
  • 30% of classrooms had student work samples and instructional artifacts that aligned with the Literacy for All components.
  • 20% of teachers consistently conducted running records throughout the year to track student progress.
Teacher Survey Results
Statement Mean Score*
Scale 1 to 5
1=Strongly Disagree to
5=Strongly Agree
 blank District Valley Palms
I received adequate training for administering the IRI. 4.38 4.42
I received adequate training on implementing the six components of Literacy for All. 2.99 3.02
I have a deep understanding of each of the six Literacy for All components. 3.05 2.99
I have a clear understanding of what my literacy block should look like. 3.22 3.00
I know how to use IRI data to help me group students appropriately. 4.12 4.38
I have time to meet with small groups and intervention groups every day. 2.96 2.88
I understand how to administer the IRI to students. 4.21 4.59

*Statements with a mean score below 3.5 are considered by the district as areas needing improvement.

Literacy for All Implementation Plan: Valley Palms Elementary

  1. Complete informal reading inventory (IRI) to assess each student's current instructional level.
  2. Determine target reading levels for the current nine weeks. Use the district targets as a guide.
  3. Form guided reading groups and word work groups based on results of the IRI.
  4. Implement daily language arts block consistently.
Read-aloud/Shared reading 15 minutes
Guided reading and Independent reading 60 minutes
Word work 15 minutes
Shared writing 15 minutes
Independent writing 15 minutes

Competency 002—The entry-level principal knows how to work with stakeholders as key partners to support student learning.

39. Dr. Basara sets a goal to meet with the appropriate stakeholders to review the data and build teacher commitment and investment in the Literacy for All initiative. Dr. Basara considers who should be included in meetings and what information should be gathered to better implement the Literacy for All initiative at the school. Dr. Basara drafts a list of potential questions to be answered and possible actions to take.

Review the list of possible questions below and determine which TWO questions are supported by the data. Then select the appropriate action for the principal to take to gather more information to improve the school's implementation of the initiative.

Possible Questions Possible Actions
How can I better understand which specific components of the Literacy for All program teachers need more support implementing? Meet with second- and third-grade teachers to review their literacy lesson plans and discuss their current assessment practices regarding students' reading behaviors and how they use this information to inform instruction.
Why do teachers feel they have been sufficiently trained in IRI, but the district's evaluation of classroom practices fails to show that IRIs are being used effectively? Offer the district-sponsored IRI training again because repeating this staff development opportunity will ensure teachers see the value in its regular use.
How can the principal acknowledge teachers' use of grouping strategies to support reading comprehension and fluency growth? Complete, with the assistant principal and lead teachers, classroom observations and lesson plan review of the literacy block in all second- and third-grade classes documenting evidence of lesson structure, focus, and time allotment.

 

Questions Supported by the Data Appropriate Action
blank blank
blank blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
The two questions and actions that are supported by the data are as follows.
Question 1
How can I better understand which specific components of the Literacy for All program teachers need more support implementing? Action in response to Question 1
Complete, with the assistant principal and lead teachers, classroom observations and lesson plan review of the literacy block in all second- and third-grade classes documenting evidence of lesson structure, focus, and time allotment. The district's evaluation shows that only 24% of lessons audited show evidence of all six Literacy for All components, so the principal needs to gather more information to determine which of the six components of the program teachers are implementing, what strategies they are using, and how their lesson plans support implementation of all components.
Question 2
Why do teachers feel trained in IRI but the district's evaluation of classroom practices fails to show IRIs are being used effectively?
Action in response to Question 2
Meet with second- and third-grade teachers to review their literacy lesson plans and discuss their current assessment practices regarding students' reading behaviors and how they use this information to inform instruction. Only 20% of teachers consistently conduct running records throughout the year, but survey results show that teachers know how to administer the IRI and use it to group students. By meeting with the teachers, looking at evidence of current practices, and discussing current assessment practices, the principal can better understand how teachers plan for assessing students' reading behaviors/levels and discuss how to better use this information when planning future instruction. The question regarding grouping strategies is incorrect because it is not supported by the information in the scenario. While teachers report using appropriate grouping strategies in the survey, performance data show students are underperforming when compared to the district. The action regarding IRI training is incorrect because it will not enhance the principal's understanding of root causes and fails to build teacher commitment and investment in the initiative. Therefore, the action is unhelpful in meeting the principal's goal.

Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

40. When investigating the trend of lack of daily implementation of read-alouds identified by the district, Dr. Basara talks to the second- and third-grade teachers and learns that students are often getting bored or restless during read-alouds, causing teachers to abandon this practice and extend guided reading and independent reading time. To address this issue, Dr. Basara should recommend which THREE of the following possible solutions?

  1. Selecting engaging texts that are at students' listening comprehension levels
  2. Creating after-reading activities that informally check for understanding
  3. Providing a clear purpose and a thinking task before the read-aloud begins
  4. Posing comprehension questions for student discussion at key points in the read-aloud
  5. Including nonfiction books and newspaper articles that connect to future curriculum topics
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Options A, C, and D are correct because selecting engaging texts at students' listening levels, providing a clear purpose and a thinking task before the read-aloud begins, and posing comprehension questions for student discussion during key points in the read-aloud are appropriate suggestions for addressing student boredom and restlessness. The second- and third-grade teachers need support to ensure read-alouds effectively keep students' attention. Option B is incorrect because although after-reading activities or assessments should be planned, this component will not directly improve engagement during the read-aloud. Option E is incorrect because although a range of genres should be included in read-alouds, choosing texts that connect to future curriculum topics will not directly affect student engagement in the read-aloud itself.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

41. Based on the data, Dr. Basara decides to plan professional development to support the implementation of guided reading.

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4
  • Forming dynamic groups
  • Selecting instructional texts
  • Establishing a purpose for reading
 blank
  • Monitoring students as they whisper read and taking anecdotal notes
  • Helping students learn how to self-correct errors
  • Prompting students to apply targeted comprehension strategies as they read
  • Facilitating a discussion about the text and asking preplanned comprehension questions
  • Having students respond to the text with writing and drawing
  • Revisiting the lesson objective and purpose for reading

To provide the most effective and balanced guidance to teachers, Dr. Basara should focus part 2 around

  1. determining students' independent reading levels and modeling fluent oral reading.
  2. inviting predictions and connections and previewing the text before reading.
  3. using graphic organizers to identify story elements and eliciting retellings of the text.
  4. identifying the type of cuing system students use and carrying out miscue analyses.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because pre-reading activities are a key component of guided reading. The principal should ensure that teachers understand how to elicit student predictions and connections and preview the text before reading (e.g., picture walk). Option A is incorrect because the texts selected for guided reading should be on students' instructional level, not independent level. Option C is incorrect because identifying story elements and eliciting retellings would fall under targeted comprehension strategies, which is a focus of part 3. Option D is incorrect because identifying students' cuing systems and using a miscue analysis to understand students' errors is included in part 3 (i.e., "Monitoring students as they whisper read . . ." and "Helping students learn how to self-correct . . .").

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

42. After Dr. Basara holds a professional development session with teachers to expand their conceptual understanding of guided reading, Dr. Basara plans five more follow-up staff development sessions to support the school's implementation of guided reading.

Session 2: Teachers meet in small groups with their upcoming lesson plans and recent IRI results in hand. Teachers follow a process to identify evidence in the documents they brought that answer these guiding questions: To what extent are we implementing effective guided reading lessons based on the information learned during our first session? What do we need to do differently? Have teachers record and share two goals they set for themselves.

Session 3: Identify teachers at other schools in the district who effectively implement guided reading as a part of the Literacy for All initiative. Schedule teacher visits for classroom observations. After the observations, teachers will capture specific notes regarding the following guiding questions: What did you see? What did you not see? What did you learn that will help you achieve your two goals?

Session 4:

Session 5: Teachers develop a list of evidence to look for in quality guided reading lessons. Teachers will video record a partner teacher at Valley Palms teaching a guided reading lesson. While reviewing the recorded lessons, teachers will use the rubric to guide their reflections on strengths and opportunities for improvement.

Session 6:

To best provide a continuum of professional development that supports teacher growth with guided reading, which of the following professional development activities should Dr. Basara focus on for sessions 4 and 6?

 blank Session 4 Session 6
A. Have teachers identify books to use with their guided reading groups. Have teachers review examples of fiction and nonfiction texts for shared reading.
B. Have teachers work in pairs to chart their experience using informal reading inventories. Have teachers implement an updated lesson-planning template, noting the core components of the reading initiative.
C. Have teachers share reflections from the school visits and discuss plans to implement one change in practice as a result of the visits. Complete individual coaching sessions with teachers who need additional assistance.
D. Have teachers assess what they want to know about guided reading resources based on information gained from visits to other schools. Invite a district literacy specialist to the school to share information on the literacy initiative.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the principal has provided teachers with a strong foundation to an effective practice (session 1), engaged teachers collaboratively to identify concrete evidence of current practice and needs (session 2), and shown exemplars via the classroom visits (session 3), the teachers will be ready by session 4 to build shared understanding through reflections from school visits. By asking teachers to discuss their observations during the school visits, the principal leverages the teachers' articulation of exemplar implementation and creates an opportunity to identify areas for improvement and build a culture of self-reflection. Option A is incorrect because, while both of these activities focus on selecting appropriate text, the activities do not align with the staff development sessions planned before and after them. Option B is incorrect because moving on to reading inventories without processing teacher learning from school visits minimizes its effectiveness. Principals should guard from disconnected professional development sessions that fail to allow deep reflection and support sustainable change. While a lesson planning template may be helpful to some teachers for organization, focusing on a lesson planning template is disconnected to session 5 learning. Option D is incorrect because there is no evidence in the documentation that resources are a concern for teachers, and information about the initiative should be shared at the beginning rather than during session 6.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

43. Nine weeks after campus implementation of the literacy initiative, Dr. Basara notices during her regular walk-throughs of the third-grade classrooms that Mr. Kennedy, a novice teacher, is heavily focused on reading and word work during the language arts block. During writing time, Mr. Kennedy often shows students writing exemplars on the overhead projector as his mini-lesson. He then asks students to write about the same topics in their notebooks. Dr. Basara decides to provide side-by-side planning with Mr. Kennedy to improve his shared writing instruction. Dr. Basara talks to Mr. Kennedy about an upcoming lesson focus, and together they sketch out plans for the next week of shared writing instruction. As Dr. Basara plans alongside Mr. Kennedy, she should primarily focus on helping Mr. Kennedy

  1. script out how to think aloud during the writing process while incorporating students' ideas.
  2. create a writer's workshop wheel chart that helps students move independently from prewriting to publishing.
  3. identify students who need intensive small-group support with specific writing skills based on the benchmarks.
  4. incorporate dialogue journaling between the teacher and the students to encourage sharing ideas in a nonthreatening environment.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because a think-aloud is the most effective way to guide students' processes for learning. Research shows that students who listen to proficient writers verbalize their thinking will perform better on measures of reading comprehension. This transparent instructional strategy increases students' thought processes and produces increased outcomes. Option B is incorrect because a writer's workshop wheel chart would support independent writing, not shared writing. Option C is incorrect because determining which students need small-group support does not support Mr. Kennedy's shared writing instruction. Option D is incorrect because dialogue journaling would support independent writing, not shared writing.

Competency 003—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively develop and implement high-quality instruction.

44. During a walk-through in a second-grade classroom, Dr. Basara observes a targeted small-group phonics lesson during a word work block. The lesson focuses on using common syllabication patterns to decode words, specifically vowel-consonant-silent "e" words. The principal holds a coaching meeting with the teacher after the lesson and identifies three areas of improvement for the lesson.

Select the appropriate adjustment for the principal to recommend to the teacher in response to the areas needing improvement.

Model the sounds for students instead of having students demonstrate them aloud to limit educational experiences that highlight students' weaknesses openly.

Analyze the data for the types of words and sounds students struggle decoding when planning small-group phonics lessons.

Use repeated and quick choral response to words presented and follow up with individual responses by students needing more practice.

Allow students to use whiteboards to spell a word and hold it up for the teacher to check.

Give immediate feedback to students who miss a word and have the students correct it before the students internalize misunderstandings.

Areas Adjustment
Ensure that all students have many opportunities to practice the targeted skills and words. blank
Have students practice the exact words they need the most work on. blank
Have students practice the skills and words correctly. blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Adjustment to Area 1
Use repeated and quick choral response to words presented and follow up with individual responses by students needing more practice.
Explanation
Because succeeding once or twice at a skill will not bring mastery, the principal should recommend that the teacher give students a lot of opportunities to practice a skill they need to improve.
Adjustment to Area 2
Analyze the data for the types of words and sounds students struggle decoding when planning small-group phonics lessons.
Explanation
To make practice effective, the teacher should use assessment data and on-the-spot checks for understanding to make sure that students are practicing just what they need to practice.
Adjustment to Area 3
Give immediate feedback to students who miss a word and have the students correct it before the students internalize misunderstandings.
Explanation
To effectively address student errors and misunderstandings, students should receive feedback and practice until they can demonstrate mastery of the skill entirely on their own.

Questions 45–49 refer to the following information.

Ms. Dawson is the principal of Junction Magnet Middle School (grades 6–8) in a suburban district. Junction Magnet MS specializes in providing a curriculum focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) for the 450 students at the campus. While Junction Magnet MS accepts students by lottery from three other middle schools in the district, interest in the magnet program has not grown at the expected rate and a large portion of the school building is not being used. So, the district has decided to move Junction Magnet MS to the Riverside MS campus at the start of the next school year.

Mr. Kapoor is the principal of Riverside Middle School (grades 6–8), which currently serves 625 students. Riverside MS has also experienced under-enrollment for several years, and the school building being used is well under capacity.

In preparation for the merger, district leadership developed a transition plan to close Junction Magnet MS and move its students and magnet program to Riverside MS. The superintendent facilitated several meetings with Mr. Kapoor, Ms. Dawson, and other district leadership to determine the implications and factors to be considered for the merger. The team proposed the merger to the school board and gathered public input.

Ms. Dawson notified the district that she plans to retire at the end of the school year but will work with Mr. Kapoor during the spring to ensure a smooth transition of Junction Magnet MS students to Riverside MS.

In February, Ms. Dawson and Mr. Kapoor completed a meeting with the superintendent to discuss staff allocations and are now working to address the March events in the transition plan.

Documents

  1. Student Demographic Information for Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS
  2. Initial Transition Plan from the Superintendent—Merger of Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS
  3. Student Survey Results and Summary of Parent Perceptions from Focus Groups
  4. E-mail regarding Staff Allocations
  5. Letter to Parents about the STEM Program

Student Demographic Information for Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS

Junction Magnet Middle School—450 (school capacity of 1,500)
Ethnic Distribution Campus Count Campus Percent District
African American 52 11.5% 23.9%
Hispanic 153 33.9% 62.1%
White 146 32.5% 8.7%
American Indian 3 0.6% 0.2%
Asian 75 16.7% 3.9%
Pacific Islander 0 0.0% 0.1%
Two or More Races 21 4.8% 1.1%
 blank  blank  blank  blank
Economically Disadvantaged 117 26.1% 77.1%
Non-Educationally Disadvantaged 333 73.9% 22.9%
English Language Learners (ELL) 22 4.8% 31.8%
Students with Disciplinary Placements 0 0.0% 1.2%
At-Risk 77 17.2% 67.5%
Riverside Middle School—625 (school capacity of 1,500)
Ethnic Distribution Campus Count Campus Percent District
African American 29 4.7% 23.9%
Hispanic 588 94.0% 62.1%
White 5 0.8% 8.7%
American Indian 0 0.0% 0.2%
Asian 3 0.4% 3.9%
Pacific Islander 0 0.0% 0.1%
Two or More Races 0 0.0% 1.1%
 blank  blank  blank  blank
Economically Disadvantaged 580 92.8% 77.1%
Non-Educationally Disadvantaged 45 7.2% 22.9%
English Language Learners (ELL) 191 30.6% 31.8%
Students with Disciplinary Placements 11 1.8% 1.2%
At-Risk 427 68.3% 67.5%
Initial Transition Plan from the Superintendent—Merger of Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS
Date Event
October
  • The superintendent notifies the board of a proposal to merge Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS.
  • The district notifies Junction Magnet MS parents that due to declining enrollment, the district is evaluating possible options for moving the magnet school.
November
  • The district will conduct public meetings regarding the proposed merger.
December
  • The board votes on the merger of the two middle schools.
  • Ms. Dawson and Mr. Kapoor attend the school board meeting and provide information on the programs at each school.
  • The superintendent schedules a public meeting at each school to announce the merger. The district notifies Junction Magnet MS parents that Ms. Dawson will be retiring at the end of the school year and Mr. Kapoor will remain principal at Riverside MS.
January
  • Principals will facilitate parent focus groups at each campus to gather information about the merger and hear their concerns.
  • Principals will survey Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS students.
February
  • The superintendent schedules a meeting with Ms. Dawson and Mr. Kapoor to discuss survey concerns.
  • Principals will plan for staff allocations and a timeline for notifying staff.
March
  • Ms. Dawson and Mr. Kapoor meet to create a plan for staff selections and review results of the student survey and parent focus groups.
  • Mr. Kapoor drafts the remaining portion of this transition plan (April–August).
  • Plan communications will be sent to parents.

Student Survey Results

  Percent Agreeing or Strongly Agreeing
When the two middle schools merge, I expect that Students at Junction Magnet MS Students at Riverside MS
1. my teachers will have high expectations for me. 55% 68%
2. my teachers will care about me and help me reach my goals. 68% 85%
3. I will study subjects that are challenging and interesting. 49% 51%
4. I can participate in the extracurricular clubs and sports that I enjoy. 49% 47%
5. I will make new friends. 40% 51%
6. I will feel safe and comfortable at school. 68% 75%
Summary of Parent Perceptions from Focus Groups

Junction Magnet Middle School (STEM Program)

  • It will be difficult for students from two schools to integrate as one student body.
  • Junction Magnet MS parents will not be welcomed by Riverside MS parents.
  • Junction Magnet MS parents and students will feel like latecomers.
  • Some Junction Magnet MS parents will struggle to get their children to school because of the extra distance.

Riverside Middle School

  • The larger school population at Riverside MS will increase class size.
  • It will be difficult for students from two schools to integrate as one student body.
  • The quality of instruction will suffer.
  • The larger student population may result in fewer or weaker services for English learners, gifted, and other special student populations.

E-mail regarding Staffing Allocations

I wanted to update you regarding my plan for staff allocations, as discussed earlier this week. Per your request, I created a staffing chart based on the number of teachers we have at each school and the number of teachers I project that we will need after the schools merge. I checked the contracts for the teachers, and the majority of the teachers are on one-year term contracts. It appears that our current voluntary teacher transfer policy gives me discretion in determining which teachers are transferred at the end of a school year when an opening occurs at another campus. Since class sizes are smaller at Junction Magnet MS, I anticipate we will not need all the teachers from Junction Magnet MS to transfer to Riverside MS. I know that we generally have a seniority-based selection approach in the district, but I hope you will be able to provide me flexibility in ensuring that quality teachers are selected to fill the vacant positions.

 blank Junction Magnet MS Riverside MS Projected Need for the Merger Notes
English Language Arts 3 4 7 One teacher retiring at Riverside MS who has gifted and talented certification
Mathematics* 4 4 8  blank
Science* 4 4 8 One teacher retiring at Junction Magnet MS who has experience in rocketry for STEM program
Foreign Languages 3 4 7  blank
Social Studies 3 4 7  blank
Fine Arts 3 4 7  blank
Physical Education/Health 2 2 4 One PE teacher who is also a basketball and track coach has applied for the high school coaching position.
Technology* 4 2 5  blank
Special Education 3 5 8  blank
Noninstructional Staff
  • Office staff
  • Instructional aids
  • Custodians
  • 5
  • 2
  • 4
  • 5
  • 2
  • 4
  • 5
  • 3
  • 5
 blank

*Consider specialized curriculum focus for STEM program

Letter to Parents about the STEM Program

Parents,
Due to the merging of Junction Magnet Middle School with Riverside Middle School, we will be making changes to the policies and procedures for participation in the STEM program currently operated at Junction Magnet MS. The program will be continued at Riverside MS, but the schoolwide lottery system used at Junction Magnet MS will be changed to an application-based system.
Using a matrix, teachers will assess each candidate's eligibility to participate based on academic grades and state-mandated test results from the previous school year before a campus committee selects candidates for the program. All participating students will be reevaluated each year. Please let me know if you have any questions about the new system.
Sincerely,
Mr. Kapoor and Ms. Dawson

Matrix for Selection for the Magnet Program
Academic grades
(average for core classes only from previous school year)
POINTS
90–100
40 points
80–89
30 points
75–79
25 points
70–74
20 points
Below 70
0 points
 blank
State-mandated test results from previous school year  blank
Reading Masters Grade Level
30 points
Meets Grade Level
25 Points
Approaches Grade Level
20 points
Did not Meet Grade Level
0 points
 blank
Mathematics Masters Grade Level
30 points
Meets Grade Level
25 Points
Approaches Grade Level
20 points
Did not Meet Grade Level
0 points
 blank
Considerations  blank
Teacher Recommendation Student greatly benefits from program
30 points
Student benefits from some aspects of program
20 points
Student benefits from few aspects of program
10 points
Student does not benefit from program
0 points
 blank
Diversity in program participants English learner (EL) (5 points)
Economically Disadvantaged (5 points)
 blank
TOTAL POINTS  blank

Competency 001—The entry-level principal knows how to establish and implement a shared vision and culture of high expectations for all stakeholders (students, staff, parents, and community).

45. After reviewing the information for each school, which THREE of the following actions should Mr. Kapoor plan to implement to support a successful merger of Junction Magnet MS with Riverside MS?

  1. Visiting Junction Magnet MS regularly to interact with students and parents and have an opportunity to communicate with them
  2. Schedule multiple opportunities for Riverside MS and Junction Magnet MS students to participate in team-building activities at Riverside MS
  3. Create a new code of conduct to ensure consistent expectations for all students from Riverside MS and Junction Magnet MS
  4. Disaggregate student disciplinary data to determine which students to target for additional services once the merger is complete
  5. Meet with parent representatives from diverse groups to facilitate the creation of a combined parent-teacher organization
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because visiting Junction Magnet MS school allows Mr. Kapoor to begin to build relationships with students and parents in the Junction Magnet MS community. Option B is correct because it is a best practice for Riverside MS to provide opportunities for students to socialize and participate in purposeful team-building activities to get to know one another and see commonalities among themselves. Option E is correct because Mr. Kapoor needs to gain the trust of parents in order to create a new cohesive parent-teacher organization. Option C is incorrect because the current code of conduct at Riverside MS should not be discarded just because of the merger or the demographics of both schools. Option D is incorrect because the data for both schools (Junction Magnet MS 0% and Riverside MS 1.8%) show a very small percentage of students needing disciplinary action, so this would not be a focus of merger activities.

Competency 002—The entry-level principal knows how to work with stakeholders as key partners to support student learning.

46. Mr. Kapoor and the leadership team plan several activities to respond to the concerns of the parent focus groups. As the leadership team reflects on their plans, Mr. Kapoor considers which of the planned activities go beyond only responding to parent feedback to creating an opportunity for parents to be an integral part of the school culture and which activities do not.

For each row, determine if the planned activity only responds to parent feedback or goes beyond responding to parent feedback and helps parents become an integral part of the school culture.

Activities Planned in Response to Parent Feedback Only Responds to Parent Feedback Creates a Structure for Helping Parents Become an Integral Part of the School Culture
Coordinating an online sign-up sheet for Junction Magnet MS parents to form carpools to ease the burden of transportation to Riverside MS blank blank
Hosting a day for Junction Magnet MS parents to visit Riverside MS classrooms, participate in parent-teacher-student panels to discuss key issues, and meet with the campus improvement committee to provide input into plans for the upcoming school year blank blank
Facilitating a series of joint meetings with the boards of the parent-teacher associations at Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS to begin creating a common vision and discuss ways to integrate programs and traditions blank blank
Hosting a combined Junction MS and Riverside MS spring festival to provide information to parents and students on the curricular and extracurricular programs that will be offered after the merger blank blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
The activities in rows 1 and 4 only respond to parent feedback but do not create structures where parents can be a part of meaningful collaborative activities that are important to the school culture because of the inherent nature of one-way communication. The activities in rows 2 and 3 go beyond just responding to parent feedback and create a structure for making parents an integral part of the school culture. The actions provide more effective and meaningful two-way communication, including an opportunity for parents to experience the school from the students' perspective and provide input on issues that are being discussed by teachers and students. They also provide a structure for parents to become more involved in programs and events, and to voice their concerns.

Competency 006—The entry-level principal knows how to promote high-quality teaching by using selection, placement, and retention practices to promote teacher excellence and growth.

47. Which of the following best supports Mr. Kapoor's request for choosing the teaching staff based on his staff projections for the merger?

  1. Relying on seniority interferes with the efficacy and motivation of first-year teachers.
  2. Eliminating seniority as the factor in determining which teachers are hired for positions strengthens communication with teachers.
  3. Reconsidering seniority preferences allows for student-performance factors to be used as a criteria in teacher selection.
  4. Ranking teachers solely by seniority when determining contract nonrenewal ensures transparency in decision making.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because adding student performance factors as a criterion in deciding which teachers to hire for the positions provides the principal with flexibility to consider teacher performance and better ensure the teachers who transfer to the school better meet program needs. Option A is incorrect because the principal's primary concern is not the impact of seniority-based selection practices on first-year teachers. Rather, he is requesting the flexibility to consider quality factors like teacher performance and student outcomes and not seniority alone. This would allow him to select quality teachers regardless of their years of experience. Option B is incorrect because simply eliminating seniority will not ensure an improvement in communication with teachers. Option D is incorrect because the decision-making process would be transparent but should take into account multiple factors to ensure quality teachers are kept at the school, including teacher performance and student outcomes.

Competency 002—The entry-level principal knows how to work with stakeholders as key partners to support student learning.

48. Which THREE of the following actions should Mr. Kapoor take before sending out the letter regarding the changes to student selection for the STEM program?

  1. Ensuring the selection process includes a consideration for representation from Junction Magnet MS and Riverside MS student bodies
  2. Adding information to the letter regarding the rationale for the new application process when compared to the previous lottery process
  3. Removing any information regarding selection into the magnet program from the letter as this is confidential information
  4. Asking key parents involved in the Riverside MS parent-teacher organization to review the letter for feedback
  5. Forming a committee of representative stakeholders to review the criteria drafted for the application process
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Options A, B, and E are correct because these actions allow for consideration of multiple perspectives throughout the process, which fosters buy-in and investment among stakeholders. An application system can provide an opportunity to ensure the program includes representation of the diversity of the campus, and ensures opportunities are provided to all students. Because there is no evidence that the principal included parents or staff in the development of the new selection process, forming a committee of stakeholders to review the drafted selection criteria allows for consideration of multiple perspectives. Additionally, any communication to parents regarding the new selection criteria should include information on the value of the new application process to help parents better understand the change. Option C is incorrect because sharing the general criteria for the application process helps parents and students understand how students will be selected for the magnet program. Not sharing this criteria would limit transparency regarding the change. Option D is incorrect because the goal of the merger is to integrate both communities, and choosing parents from only one middle school would not align.

Competency 001—The entry-level principal knows how to establish and implement a shared vision and culture of high expectations for all stakeholders (students, staff, parents, and community).

49. Once staff have been selected and Mr. Kapoor is ready to determine the remaining portion of the transition plan, which of the following is the most immediate action Mr. Kapoor should take?

  1. Gathering input from stakeholders about how to use the space at Junction Magnet MS effectively to best support district initiatives after the closure
  2. Selecting parent representatives from each campus who are willing to provide information to students about the merger
  3. Setting the tone for the combined school by planning staff engagement activities that include staff and student culture building and instructional planning
  4. Creating a school transition team of district administrators, school administrators, and teachers who participate in community-wide meetings
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because staff have been excluded from all initiative activities and planning. Staff engagement is important to the success of the merger. Many research theories on change management emphasize the importance of building awareness to better engage participants and gain investment in a successful transition. The principal should provide rationale along with the intended goals for the change process to help teachers understand how their individual participation contributes to the collective success of the school merger. Option A is incorrect because the district would be responsible for deciding what to do with the facility, and this would likely have been a part of early transition activities. Option B is incorrect because the school needs to provide information to students about the merger through classroom and school discussions. Option D is incorrect because district and school administrators have already been participating in community-wide meetings. School transition teams should include parents, students, and community members.

Questions 50–52 refer to the following information.

Ms. Garmon is principal of Alames School, a single-campus prekindergarten through twelfth-grade school. Alames is the only school in the rural district of Alames ISD and serves 250 students, with an average of 17 students in each grade level. Alames has been affected by many factors that make it difficult to recruit effective teachers, among them competition with large urban and suburban school districts and lack of employment opportunities for family members of prospective candidates. In response, Ms. Garmon spearheads a Grow-Your-Own (GYO) program with the following goals.

  • Increase Alames' teacher candidate pool by generating student interest in the field of education.
  • Offer hands-on teaching experiences for GYO participants.
  • Use GYO participants as meaningful supports for current pre-K–12 teachers.

The program was offered to juniors and seniors the first year, but Ms. Garmon plans to eventually expand it to create a track for aspiring teachers as early as eighth grade. This year, four juniors and four seniors applied and were selected to participate. Two days a week, students take education classes with Ms. Idelbird, a high-performing, highly motivating teacher. Three days a week, they gain field experiences by participating in instructional tasks in other classrooms under the guidance of a strong mentor teacher. Students spend one semester focused on elementary education and the following semester on secondary education.

At the end of the year, Ms. Garmon collects input from participants to evaluate the program in its current form and plan for necessary adjustments.

Documents

  1. Instructional Staff Teaching Core Subjects
  2. Demographic Information for Current Year
  3. Participant Feedback—Year 1
Staff Information—Instructional Staff Teaching Core Subjects
 blank 3 Years Ago 2 Years Ago 1 Year Ago Current Year
Elementary School Staff
Prekindergarten Permanent sub Jones Jones Jones
Kindergarten Devault Devault Lee (K/1 split; no teacher for K) Lee (K/1 split; no teacher for K)
First Grade Lee Lee
Second Grade Ortega Carr Carr Carr
Third Grade Holter Holter Holter Holter
Fourth Grade SPED
teacher temporary assignment
Bilaq Bilaq Bilaq
(4/5 split; no teacher for 5th)
Fifth Grade Parr Parr Parr
Middle School Staff
6–8 language arts courses Cooper-Dodson Cooper-Dodson Cooper-Dodson Cooper-Dodson
6–8 math courses Rodrigo Rodrigo Neal West
6–8 social studies courses Eubank Eubank Eubank Eubank
6–8 science courses Batiste Jelks Coach Halwell–emergency cert. Rickerson
High School Staff
9–12 language arts courses Medina Medina Medina Medina

9–12 math courses

Ertel SPED
teacher temporary assignment
Blocker Permanent sub
9–12 social studies courses Kasimba Kasimba Idelbird Idelbird
9–12 science courses Castillo Brown Brown Coach Halwell—emergency certification
Demographic Information for Current Year
 blank Number of Alames Staff Members Number of Alames Students Number of GYO Participants
African American 1 6 0
Hispanic 2 125 1
White 24 115 7
Asian 1 4 0
 blank  blank  blank  blank
Male 5 127 0
Female 23 123 8
Participant Feedback—Year 1
Question (Number of Responses) Sample Participant Comments
Do you agree with how participants were chosen for the program?
  • Do not agree (0)
  • Neutral (3)
  • Agree (5)
"I know you have to have a 3.2 GPA to get picked. I'm pretty sure that's a main reason I was picked."

"Ms. Cooper-Dodson recommended me because she said I was high-achieving and talented academically."

"I think it was fair how we were picked for the program except I noticed all eight of us are girls."
Do you think you are receiving adequate preparation to pursue teaching as a career?
  • Not adequate (1)
  • Somewhat adequate (4)
  • Adequate (3)
  • More than adequate (0)
"Ms. Lathan, the new career education teacher, taught us a lot about classroom management and planning good lessons. I would like to learn more about how kids learn. Working with the younger kids was really, really different from teaching the older students—I felt like I wasn't sure how to go from one to the other."
Do you believe that your classroom placement was appropriate each semester?
  • Not appropriate (1)
  • Somewhat appropriate (4)
  • Appropriate (2)
  • Very appropriate (1)
"I enjoyed being in third grade a lot more last semester. This semester I was in high school social studies—I'm not really a history person."

"I'm not sure why I was placed in Coach Halwell's class. I really wish I had gotten to stay in Ms. Carr's class."

"I loved loved loved being in Ms. Jones' class! I learned a lot from her. Ms. Rickerson was good too, but she's new so she didn't know too much about our school."
Do you believe that your mentor teachers provided enough support to you?
  • No support (0)
  • Minimal support (3)
  • Adequate support (3)
  • More than adequate support (2)
"Ms. Rickerson was really supportive; she spent a lot of time giving me feedback on my lessons. She made me feel like I could actually become a teacher and make a difference."

"Mr. West made me feel like I was his co-teacher. I helped with a lot, like grading and prepping materials for lessons."

"Coach Halwell really appreciated me tutoring so many kids this semester. I do wish I had gotten to teach some lessons to a whole class, though."
How likely are you to pursue the teaching profession?
  • Not likely (1)
  • Somewhat likely (3)
  • Likely (3)
  • Very likely (1)
"I'm really excited about trying to become a teacher now!"

"I wish this class was dual credit."

"I hope I can get into a college that has a good education program."

Competency 007—The entry-level principal knows how to develop relationships with internal and external stakeholders, including selecting appropriate communication strategies for particular audiences.

50. As Ms. Garmon refines the direction of the GYO program, which THREE of the following additional goals should she prioritize?

  1. Increase the diversity of the GYO participant pool to support the long-term plan for making the school staff more diverse.
  2. Incorporate a formal appraisal protocol as an integral component of prospective teacher preparation.
  3. Partner with a higher education institution to provide a pathway for high school students interested in becoming certified teachers.
  4. Designate a current pre-K–12 teacher as the GYO program coordinator as the initiative expands to ninth and tenth grades.
  5. Recruit students who show an interest in the areas of secondary science and high school mathematics.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because increasing the quality, along with the gender and ethnic diversity of the participant pool, is an appropriate goal to support a long-term plan for ensuring that the school staff become more representative of the student population. Option C is correct because it seems as if the program does not currently offer a clear connection to postsecondary opportunities for participating students. One student even mentions that she hopes she can get into a good education program. Exemplar grow-your-own programs are characterized by strong partnerships with colleges and universities that establish clear pathways to the profession. Option E is correct because staffing is a concern at the middle school and high school level in science and mathematics, as evidenced by the use of permanent substitutes and emergency certifications. It is an appropriate goal to encourage more students to pursue teaching experiences in math and science in order to expand the pool of future teacher candidates in these areas. Option B is incorrect because it is inappropriate to implement formal teacher appraisal processes for high school students participating in this program. Option D is incorrect because while establishing teachers in leadership roles builds capacity, it is not the highest-leverage action in this situation because Ms. Garmon already serves as the career education teacher, coordinating to some extent.

Competency 008—The entry-level principal knows how to focus on improving student outcomes through organizational collaboration, resiliency, and change management.

51. Which of the following recruitment practices is likely to have the greatest impact on the GYO program?

  1. Utilizing teacher role models that reflect the demographics of the student population to encourage Hispanic students to participate in the program
  2. Sharing a flyer including student testimonials to make the student population more aware of the details and benefits of the program
  3. Having prospective participants write an essay explaining why they are a good fit for GYO
  4. Giving primary consideration to prospective participants who express a desire to work at the secondary level
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because there is a mismatch between the demographics of the school as a whole and the demographics of GYO participants. Only one Hispanic student currently participates. Utilizing Hispanic teacher role models in the recruitment process can increase Hispanic students' sense of belonging, receptivity, and interest in the program. Option B is incorrect because distributing a flyer is not as effective an influence as positive role models. Option C is incorrect because having students write essays to determine who will participate in GYO will not improve recruitment. Option D is incorrect because the staffing chart shows that both elementary and secondary teachers are needed.

Competency 009—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively determine goals and implement strategies aligned with the school vision that support teacher effectiveness and positive student outcomes.

52. To ensure that all participants benefit from their classroom placements, Ms. Garmon should primarily consider

  1. providing opportunities for participants to attend and contribute to board meetings and other school-related events.
  2. selecting only mathematics and science teachers as mentors to guide participants toward hard-to-staff subject areas.
  3. distributing participants equally across early childhood, upper elementary, middle, and high school classrooms.
  4. pairing participants with highly effective teachers who have a demonstrated track record of academic success and of fostering a strong student culture.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because many of the current mentor teachers appear to be new to the school, potentially inexperienced in their assigned content area, or not providing an adequate level of support. Option A is incorrect because attending board and other meetings is unrelated to participant placement. Option B is incorrect because participants may have abilities and interests in other content areas, and these should be considered to promote a good fit between participant and assignment. Option C is incorrect because participants have expressed preferences for certain grade levels, which should be honored when appropriate.

Questions 53–57 refer to the following information.

Ms. Fripp is the new principal of Crimson School, a K–5 elementary school in a suburban school district with thirty-eight staff members who support the needs of 760 students. When Ms. Fripp joined the campus in the middle of the school year, she learned that Crimson has 76 students (10%) receiving special education services, which is similar to the district average.

Ms. Fripp forms a small team consisting of herself, the school diagnostician, a district-level special education area coordinator, and the campus special education coordinator to review each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP). Ms. Fripp also participates in Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) committee meetings to further familiarize herself with student needs and progress. The team finds that a high percentage of students are served only through a pull-out resource model. The remaining students qualifying for special education are served in inclusion classrooms, in which a special education teacher goes in to monitor the students for part of the instructional time. Crimson does not have any self-contained special education classroom support. The team concludes that broadening the range of special education services provided to students would better support their needs.

The team begins to develop a plan for expanding services for students qualifying for special education beginning the next school year. They conduct a needs assessment to inform the development of a campus professional development plan to support this transition. They decide to modify the school improvement plan to include action steps for improving the status of inclusive practices.

Documents

  1. Students Receiving Special Education Services: Team Analysis of Student Placement
  2. Teacher Needs Assessment Results: Students Receiving Special Education Services
  3. Campus Professional Development Plan
Students Receiving Special Education Services: Team Analysis of Student Placement
  Current School Year Recommendation for Upcoming School Year
 blank Total Students Number with full-day inclusion placements (no pull-out support) Number with pull-out support Number with full-day inclusion and/or co-teaching placements Number with pull-out support
Students with
Intellectual Disabilities
6 2 4 3 3
Students with Learning
Disabilities
42 22 20 40 2
Students with Speech
Disabilities
30 0 30 10 20
Students with Autism
Spectrum Disorder
8 0 8 5 3
Students with Behavioral
Disorders
8 4 4 7 1
Students with Multiple
Disabilities
20 10 10 18 2
Students Receiving Special Education Services: Team Analysis of Student Placement
Statement Percent Agreeing
1. General and special education teachers share responsibility for the success of all students in the school. 38%
2. Inclusive practices are communicated as the expectation at the school. 39%
3. Students qualifying for special education services participate in rigorous, aligned instruction that challenges them. 30%
4. Teachers understand that curriculum modifications are not used when instructional accommodations are sufficient. 35%
5. Special education teachers recognize that they may serve in multiple roles throughout the day on the basis of student needs. 33%
6. Ongoing professional-development opportunities are provided to the entire faculty to update and enhance instructional skills in working with diverse students. 45%
7. Special education teachers are members of grade-level or subject-area teams rather than members of separate departments. 42%
8. General education and special education teachers regularly plan together and use of this time is established and protected. 36%
9. My instructional practices are reflective of best practices and meet the needs of students qualifying for special education services. 61%
Campus Professional Development Plan
Campus Goal Addressed Activities/Actions Expected Outcome Resources Timeline
Advocate for the inclusion of students with disabilities in all aspects of school life. Professional development focused on inclusion services and implementation through blended learning with face-to-face sessions and online modules. Teachers will meet the instructional needs of all learners through multilevel instruction. School leadership provides staff with time, resources, face-to-face and online training. *Begins with summer professional development and continues during the first six weeks of the school year.
Train and support general and special education teachers to ensure the success of all students. Provide instructional coaching and monitoring to practice a wider continuum of special education services (full inclusion, co-teaching, resource support). Teachers will implement various co-teaching approaches to meet student needs. School leadership provides staff with weekly coaching sessions and observation monitoring to implement inclusive practices. Begins during the first six weeks of the school year and continues all year.

*The district's blended professional development program incorporates three 1.5-hour in-person seminars, one 8-hour in-person workshop, and four 30-minute online modules to be completed over the course of a month. The blended learning opportunities allow the flexibility of an online course while retaining the benefits of the face-to-face classroom experience.

Competency 009—The entry-level principal knows how to collaboratively determine goals and implement strategies aligned with the school vision that support teacher effectiveness and positive student outcomes.

53. Ms. Fripp can determine that the highest priority action is helping general education teachers

  1. adjust the criteria for determining whether a student needs an instructional accommodation.
  2. use frequent assessments to inform changes to the content standards taught in order to scaffold student learning.
  3. understand how to work with paraprofessionals to monitor each student's progress toward academic IEP goals.
  4. make the general curriculum accessible by adapting instructional practices to meet students' academic or functional needs.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the needs assessment shows from statement 3 that teachers are currently not providing rigorous, aligned instruction to all students receiving special education services. Statement 4 also shows that teachers are confused about when to use modifications and accommodations. Option A is incorrect because accommodations are determined by each student's Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) committee based on the student's needs. Accommodations change how a student accesses the information and demonstrates learning, and they are made to provide a student with equal access to on-grade level learning. Option B is incorrect because, while a few students may need to receive modifications to the content standards taught, generally, this is a very small percentage of students receiving special education services. Based on recommendations for student placements in the upcoming year, a large majority of students will receive special education services in inclusion and co-teaching classrooms. Assessments should be used to identify content standards that are mastered and to identify gaps in student learning. Teachers should focus on learning effective strategies for making grade level curriculum accessible to meet student learning needs. Option C is incorrect because the survey did not directly address teachers' understanding of how paraprofessionals are used in the classroom.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

54. Ms. Fripp and the team want to monitor the implementation of learning from the campus professional development plan. Which of the following classroom practices best demonstrates evidence of progress toward the expected outcomes listed in the professional development plan?

  1. Students receiving special education services are using tablets for independent learning while the general education teacher delivers instruction to the rest of the class and the special education teacher monitors.
  2. The general education teacher delivers whole-group instruction and pairs struggling learners with non-struggling learners during independent practice, with the special education teacher reteaching as needed.
  3. The special education teacher provides the students receiving special education services with small-group instruction while the general education teacher delivers instruction to the rest of the class.
  4. The general education teacher and special education teacher split the class into two groups based on identified needs to teach the same thing simultaneously using specific instructional methods tailored for each group.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the special education teacher and general education teacher are using a parallel co-teaching strategy. Option A is incorrect because the students with special needs should be integrated with other students who participate in independent learning, not grouped together based on their category of services. Option B is incorrect because this model is lacking individualized instruction that addresses the needs of students receiving special education services. Option C is incorrect because the professional development plan seeks to implement inclusive practices. Research shows that inclusive heterogeneous grouping strategies, including peer tutoring and cooperative learning groups, have shown to be beneficial to all learners. It is more effective to use data to differentiate instruction based on student learning needs specific to the lesson's instructional objective.

Competency 008—The entry-level principal knows how to focus on improving student outcomes through organizational collaboration, resiliency, and change management.

55. Mr. Randolph, a third-grade teacher, has been partnered with Ms. Kirk, a special education teacher, to provide services to five students in Mr. Randolph's classroom. Mr. Randolph communicates to Ms. Kirk that he will provide her with weekly lesson plans so that she will be aware of what the students will be learning when she comes in to work with them. Ms. Kirk insists that they should collaborate and plan lessons together, but Mr. Randolph resists and indicates that he prefers to simply provide her with the plans. The principal, Ms. Fripp, meets with Mr. Randolph and learns that he questions the effectiveness of co-teaching to support the learning of all students. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in building Mr. Randolph's investment in co-teaching?

  1. Providing the teachers with a dedicated regular planning time to allow them to prepare lessons and activities collaboratively
  2. Arranging for Mr. Randolph to observe a successful co-teaching classroom at the school and debrief with Ms. Fripp regarding the impact on student learning
  3. Conferencing with both teachers together to discuss their personal beliefs regarding co-teaching practices to help them overcome barriers
  4. Reassigning Ms. Kirk to work with another general education teacher who is willing to fully implement the co-teaching model
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because Ms. Fripp can build Mr. Randolph's investment in co-teaching by having Mr. Randolph observe a successful co-teaching classroom and then discuss his observations of what characteristics helped create the successful classroom. Option A is incorrect because a regular planning time may not be used successfully if the teachers do not share a common vision. Option C is incorrect because conferencing with the teachers together about their beliefs may create more divisiveness in the relationship. Option D is incorrect because reassigning the special education teacher is not appropriate; it's more appropriate to address the conflict between the two teachers and facilitate problem solving.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

56. After the first month of implementation, Ms. Fripp reviews several pieces of data that can help her evaluate the effectiveness of the professional development plan.

  • Student work samples and lesson deliverables that show appropriate implementation of modifications and accommodations
  • Co-teaching classroom observations and walk-throughs that show that a variety of co-teaching strategies are beginning to be implemented
  • Coaching logs completed by teacher leaders and assistant principals that show weekly coaching sessions addressing implementation of instructional strategies that support inclusion and co-teaching
  • Completion of online modules showing 100% participation by teachers

Which of the following should Ms. Fripp add to her list to best ensure a comprehensive evaluation process?

  1. Evaluating the IEP for students receiving special education services for evidence of goal attainment
  2. Reviewing lesson plans for evidence of consistent implementation of parallel teaching strategies
  3. Surveying teachers for changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding inclusive practices
  4. Determining the value-added effects of collaboration between teachers in core content areas
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because gauging participants' reactions through a survey in order to determine if their knowledge and attitudes have changed is the most effective action after the first month of professional development. Option A is incorrect because the purpose of the professional development is to move teachers' practices toward inclusive practices, which may or may not have had an impact on students' IEPs after a month of implementation. Option B is incorrect because while all the teachers should be showing evidence of inclusive teaching practices in their lesson plans, only the co-teaching classrooms would have evidence of strategies such as parallel teaching in their lesson plans. Option D is incorrect because collaboration between the general education and special education teachers is one of the primary purposes of the professional development, not collaboration between core content area teachers.

Competency 005—The entry-level principal knows how to provide feedback, coaching, and professional development to staff through evaluation and supervision, knows how to reflect on his/her own practice, and strives to grow professionally.

57. During professional development, Ms. Fripp has teachers work in groups to discuss the characteristics and benefits of two co-teaching models in depth. To organize the benefits and purposes of each model, teachers create the table below. Determine whether each model is associated with the benefit/purpose, and for each row, select all that apply.

Benefits/Purposes Station Teaching:
Students rotate through three stations. Two stations are teacher-led and one is independent.
Alternative Teaching:
One teacher teaches a larger group of students, while the other teacher teaches a modified lesson to a smaller group of students.
To allow for efficient use of time  blank  blank
To facilitate multiple related instructional activities  blank  blank
To target at-risk students  blank  blank
To decrease student-to-teacher ratio  blank  blank
To provide accelerated instruction  blank  blank
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Row 1: Station teaching and alternative teaching are correct because both models allow for efficient use of time by dividing students up.
Row 2: Station teaching is correct because three instructional activities are offered in this model.
Row 3: Alternative teaching is correct because the modified lesson supports at-risk students.
Row 4: Station teaching and alternative teaching are correct because both models allow for dividing up the class to decrease student-to-teacher ratio.
Row 5: Alternative teaching is correct because while a modified lesson is delivered to a small group, the rest of the class receives accelerated instruction.

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