# Preparation Manual

## Section 4: Sample Selected-Response Questions Special Education Supplemental (163)

This section presents some sample exam questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the exam. To demonstrate how each competency may be assessed, sample questions are accompanied by the competency that they measure. While studying, you may wish to read the competency before and after you consider each sample question. Please note that the competency statements do not appear on the actual exam.

For each sample exam question, there is a correct answer and a rationale for each answer option. The sample questions are included to illustrate the formats and types of questions you will see on the exam; however, your performance on the sample questions should not be viewed as a predictor of your performance on the actual exam.

### Domain I—Understanding Individuals with Disabilities and Evaluating Their Needs

#### Competency 001—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of the characteristics and needs of students with disabilities.

1. A third-grade student with a learning disability in mathematics calculations has difficulty recalling basic math facts. To best help the student succeed, the teacher should

1. provide a pocket-sized chart of basic facts as a reference guide.
2. encourage the memorization of basic facts through drill and practice.
3. allow the use of a calculator to complete basic fact calculations.
4. administer weekly timed assessments of basic facts.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because providing a chart can help promote independence and the use of a reference tool, which will enable the student to move to more complex math tasks. Option B is incorrect because memorization can be a very difficult task for a student with a learning disability in math. Option C is incorrect because a portable chart is preferable to an electronic calculator for use as a basic fact reference. Using a chart is faster, plus students still have to perform some operations. Option D is incorrect because frequent timed assessments will not be a useful strategy for ensuring the success of a student who struggles with calculations. Timing the test will make it much more difficult for the student.

2. A fifth-grade inclusion teacher prepares a lesson in which students match a numeral card with a word card naming the numeral. The lesson is most appropriate for students with which of the following disabilities?

1. Autism spectrum disorder
2. Developmental delay
3. Intellectual disability
4. Learning disability
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because students with an intellectual disability develop more slowly than other children. Students with intellectual disabilities learn best from concrete activities. Option A is incorrect because research indicates that there is no relationship between autism spectrum disorder and learning ability; the activity described is inappropriate for students with average or higher learning abilities. Option B is incorrect because developmental delay as defined by IDEA part B only includes children ages 3 to 9. Option D is incorrect because by definition students with learning disabilities are capable of learning grade-level content but may need accommodated instruction; the activity described is far below fifth-grade content.

3. Chris, a third-grade student with cystic fibrosis, receives intermittent tube feedings during the school day. With support from the school nurse, a teacher should encourage the student to use which of the following positions to prevent reflux and to aid with digestion?

1. Lying down on his left side with a pillow under his head
2. Sitting upright at a 90-degree angle with his arms above his head
3. Lying down on his right side with no pillow under his head
4. Sitting upright at a 30-degree angle with his head above the level of his stomach
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because sitting upright with the head above stomach level aids digestion. Option A is incorrect because lying down is not the best position for aiding digestion. Option B is incorrect because although the student should be sitting upright, a 90-degree angle is not the best position because compression of the abdomen will occur, which may interfere with digestion. Option C is incorrect because lying down is not the best position for aiding in digestion. Also lying flat can increase the likelihood of reflux.

4. A high school student consistently defies established norms and rules and demonstrates behavior that is intimidating and aggressive toward others. The student’s behavior is most indicative of which of the following disabilities?

1. Intermittent explosive disorder
2. Conduct disorder
3. Anxiety disorder
4. Oppositional defiant disorder
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because students with conduct disorders exhibit socially inappropriate behaviors such as being aggressive, destroying property, deceitfulness and other behaviors that violate the rights of others. Option A is incorrect because students with intermittent explosive disorder typically have explosive episodes that are characterized by an overreaction to events. There is no reflection of this in the given scenario. Option C is incorrect because students with anxiety disorders typically have irrational fears on a consistent basis. There is no reflection of this in the given scenario. Option D is incorrect because students with oppositional defiant disorder typically resist authority and are argumentative. Conduct disorder is used to describe older students who engage in behaviors that actually violate the rights of others.

5. A student with a severe anxiety disorder is prescribed a tranquilizer to help reduce the risk of panic attacks at school. After the student begins taking the medication, the teachers notice an increase in irritability, aggression, and impulsivity. The student’s reaction to the medication is best explained as which of the following?

1. A paradoxical reaction to the tranquilizer
2. An allergic reaction to the tranquilizer
3. A toxic reaction to the tranquilizer
4. An insignificant reaction to the tranquilizer
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the student is experiencing unintended effects of the tranquilizer. When individuals experience the opposite of the intended result, this is referred to as a paradoxical reaction. Option B is incorrect because the student is experiencing a paradoxical reaction not an allergic reaction. Option C is incorrect because the student is experiencing a paradoxical reaction to a tranquilizer not a toxic or poisonous reaction. Option D is incorrect because the student is experiencing a paradoxical reaction to a tranquilizer, and to the student the reaction cannot be considered insignificant.

#### Competency 002—The special education teacher understands formal and informal assessment and evaluation procedures and knows how to evaluate student competencies to make instructional decisions.

6. A third-grade student with a learning disability in reading comprehension is preparing to take a teacher-made assessment. Which of the following is the most appropriate strategy to address the student’s need?

1. Providing highlighters for use during testing
2. Utilizing graphic organizers during the assessment
3. Giving the student unlimited time for testing
4. Administering the assessment in a small group
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because using graphic organizers helps students organize content for increased understanding. Option A is incorrect because the use of highlighters would not improve the student’s comprehension. Option C is incorrect because extended time would not improve the student’s ability to comprehend the content. Option D is incorrect because administering the assessment in a small group is more appropriate for those who may need an assessment read to them or are testing with a different version of the test.

7. Sean is diagnosed at his initial Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee meeting with a specific learning disability in written expression. His Individualized Education Program (IEP) states that he will receive additional in-class support for writing. After several months, Sean continues to struggle with writing and is also showing evidence of reading difficulties. The most appropriate next step in addressing Sean’s deficit should be to

1. utilize text-to-speech software to develop proper sentence structure.
2. include a reduction in written tasks as a modification to his IEP.
3. have the ARD committee reconvene to discuss additional testing.
4. suggest ways for his parents to provide additional in-home support.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the student is classified as learning disabled in written expression and is showing evidence of increased reading difficulties; therefore, it would be appropriate for the committee to reconvene to discuss testing. Option A is incorrect because using text-to-speech software will not be beneficial in addressing reading difficulties. Option B is incorrect because reducing written tasks will not address the reading difficulties that the student is experiencing. Option D is incorrect because if the school recognizes that the student is having difficulty, it is the school’s responsibility to provide the needed academic support.

8. Jacob, a second-grade student, has participated in both Tiers 1 and 2 of the Response to Intervention (RTI) in the classroom. He has shown minimal progress and continues to struggle in the areas of reading and mathematics. Which of the following is the next step in the process of intervention that is most likely to benefit Jacob?

1. Providing Jacob with after-school tutoring services in a small-group setting
2. Providing Jacob with more intensive instruction in an individual or small-group setting outside the classroom
3. Referring Jacob for an out of district placement
4. Referring Jacob for further assessments to determine eligibility for special education services
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because according to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) guidelines for RTI, Tier 3 interventions come after Tiers 1 and 2 as a next step in the RTI process. Generally Tier 3 is implemented and evaluated before special education assessment is recommended or considered. Option A is incorrect because after-school tutoring is not a part of RTI. Option C is incorrect because out of district placement is usually recommended once the student becomes eligible for special education and the district can no longer meet the needs of the student. Out of district placement does not occur in the RTI stage. Option D is incorrect because according to TEA, Tier 3 of RTI would generally be completed, then a determination for special education assessment would be made, if necessary, before a student would receive special education services or have an IEP.

9. The progress of a student who reads below grade level is being monitored in a multitiered Response to Intervention (RTI) system. The student's progress is systematically monitored to ensure that the student is

1. showing no signs of struggling academically.
2. responding to instructional adjustments.
3. scoring as well as peers on reading benchmarks.
4. demonstrating needs consistent with a disability.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the student’s progress in an RTI must be monitored to ensure whether the intervention is being successful or must be escalated. Option A is incorrect because it is a consideration for screening. Option C is incorrect because it is a consideration in initial screening. Option D is incorrect because it is a consideration in determining eligibility after progress indicates it is appropriate.

### Domain II—Promoting Student Learning and Development

#### Competency 003—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of procedures for planning instruction for individuals with disabilities.

10. Matthew is a fourth-grade student with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). He has a Section 504 plan that calls for him to be placed in a structured learning environment. Which of the following modifications to the learning environment should the teacher implement first to most effectively meet Matthew’s needs?

1. Reducing the class size to limit peer distractions
2. Assigning work in small groups to increase student participation
3. Limiting the number of instructional choices available
4. Implementing individual behavior management techniques
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because students with ADHD perform best with clear expectations and immediate feedback. They may need extra help from behavior modification plans to meet classroom expectations, such as completing work and limiting movement. Option A is incorrect because reducing class size for the needs of one student is not a feasible modification. Option B is incorrect because small-group work often provides an added distraction. Option C is incorrect because students with ADHD benefit from having choices in their instruction.

11. Cory, a third-grade student with a specific learning disability in mathematics, is struggling to learn the process of multiplication. His general education teacher requests suggestions from his special education teacher. Which of the following suggestions would be most helpful for Cory?

1. Allowing more time for him to learn from the current instructional strategies
2. Demonstrating an alternative problem-solving method for him using a hands-on approach
3. Referring his teacher to the mathematics department chairperson for additional ideas
4. Collecting manipulatives to use with him throughout the remainder of the unit
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because a hands-on approach may help the student visualize how to process the information. Option A is incorrect because though allowing more time is an accommodation, it does not directly address the teaching problem. Option C is incorrect because the special education teacher should be the first resource for the classroom teacher with regard to students with disabilities. Option D is incorrect because the manipulatives, without ideas on how to use them, would not be effective in helping the teacher assist the student.

12. A special education teacher and a general education teacher are co-teaching a general education science class containing several students with learning disabilities in reading. A primary benefit of creating heterogeneous groups for cooperative learning activities in their classroom is that students

1. with the same instructional levels can be taught more efficiently.
2. can choose other students with whom they learn best.
3. with disabilities are included in meaningful instruction.
4. can be instructed according to their individual learning styles.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because heterogeneous grouping opens the general education curriculum to the special education students. It is essential to provide all students opportunities for engaging in a curriculum that allows everyone to learn from everyone else and that does not deprive any student of such opportunities. Option A is incorrect because students in heterogeneous groups most likely do not have the same instructional levels. Option B is incorrect because student choice does not always support the best learning opportunity for special education students. Option D is incorrect because instruction according to individual learning style would occur when students are grouped homogeneously by learning style.

13. A first-grade student who has developmental delays forms many letters of the alphabet incorrectly. Which of the following procedures is most likely to promote the student's success in forming letters correctly?

1. Having the student focus on learning how to write the letters in his or her name
2. Having the student use cues such as colored dots in forming the letters
3. Having the student focus only on the capital letters used most often
4. Having the student look at letters, say them and write them from memory
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the scaffolding of connecting the dots will help the student learn to form the letters correctly. Option A is incorrect because there may be letters in his or her name that are difficult for the student to write. Option C is incorrect because this set of capital letters may contain many letters that the student has trouble forming. Option D is incorrect because the look, say and write method is to be used with students who have demonstrated that this method works for them.

14. A special education teacher is planning a unit on managing finances for high school students in a business class. To help students become more independent in managing their finances, which of the following skills is most critical to include in the unit?

1. Knowing when to buy and sell stocks based on the market
2. Managing a financial portfolio to achieve long-term retirement goals
3. Calculating store discounts and sales tax
4. Planning a budget based on income and expenses
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because planning a budget is the most critical skill to learn for the goal of managing finances. Option A is incorrect because knowing when to buy and sell stocks is not a basic skill and would be too advanced. Option B is incorrect because managing a financial portfolio is not appropriate to introduce at this grade or age level. Option C is incorrect because calculating discounts and sales tax is an advanced skill without which special education students can live independently.

#### Competency 004—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of procedures for managing the teaching and learning environment, including procedures related to the use of assistive technology.

15. Which of the following considerations is most important when transferring a student to and from a wheelchair?

1. Using a two-person lift procedure for students exceeding a specified weight maximum
2. Remembering to bend forward at the hips while standing with straightened knees
3. Keeping the brakes unlocked on standard transport and heavy-duty transport wheelchairs
4. Lifting younger, lighter students by firmly gripping their arms instead of their trunks
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because two-person lift procedures should be used in instances when a student’s weight is too much for one person to safely lift. Option B is incorrect because it is important to bend at the hips and knees, not just at the hips. Keeping the knees straight is an unsafe practice. Option C is incorrect because it is important to keep the brakes locked on all wheelchair types. Keeping the brakes unlocked poses a safety risk. Option D is incorrect because all students, regardless of age, should be grasped by their legs or trunk (depending on if the lift is done by one or two people), not their arms.

16. A middle school student struggles to maintain compliant behavior while working in groups. The teacher decides to decrease the number of students in a group to see if that will help the student. Which of the following strategies is the teacher primarily utilizing to address the student’s misbehavior?

1. Determining the underlying reason behind the misbehavior
2. Manipulating an antecedent in the learning environment
3. Establishing appropriate behavior-shaping consequences
4. Altering the learning environment to better meet the student’s needs
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the teacher can manipulate antecedents in the environment to increase positive behavior and reduce misbehavior. Option A is incorrect because the reason for the behavior should be known before the antecedent is changed. Option C is incorrect because the teacher did not establish any consequences in the scenario. However, this could be necessary. Option D is incorrect because there is no indication that smaller groups will meet the student needs.

17. Which of the following teacher responses illustrates an effective way to provide feedback to a preschool student?

1. “Tim, I’m glad you kept your hands to yourself yesterday.”
2. “Sara, why didn’t you put your crayons away like everyone else?”
3. “Will, thank you for waiting your turn to look at the class turtle.”
4. “Vicki, your ability to cooperate with your peers has vastly improved.”
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the feedback is specific, nonjudgmental, and credible. Option A is incorrect because the feedback in not provided in a timely manner (yesterday). Option B is incorrect because the feedback is judgmental. Option D is incorrect because the feedback is not age appropriate or specific.

18. Samantha is a middle school student with multiple disabilities, including a severe speech impairment. An alternative communication device was recently added to her Individualized Education Program (IEP).

When Samantha is first learning to use the device, it will be most important for her teacher to plan activities that are

1. engaging and occur frequently.
2. challenging and content oriented.
3. documented in the Response to Intervention (RTI) meeting notes.
4. outlined in the procedural safeguards.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because activities that are engaging and repetitive will motivate the student to want to learn about and use the device. Option B is incorrect because a challenging activity is liable to frustrate Samantha. Option C is incorrect because Samantha is no longer in the RTI process since she already has an IEP. Option D is incorrect because the procedural safeguards is a booklet of the rights of parents of students with disabilities. This would not give any definition to how the device would be utilized in the classroom.

#### Competency 005—The special education teacher knows how to promote students’ educational performance in all content areas by facilitating their achievement in a variety of settings and situations.

19. The parent of a child attending a Preschool Program for Children with Disabilities (PPCD) asks the teacher for suggestions to help develop the child's preliteracy skills. It is most appropriate for the teacher to recommend that the parent engage in which of the following activities?

1. Pointing, tracking and practicing decoding strategies when reading stories
2. Using graphic organizers to display story elements and promote comprehension
3. Developing sight word recognition with flashcards, word walls, and fun games
4. Reading aloud and encouraging the child to talk about books
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because reading directly to a student is the most appropriate and effective way of honing preliteracy skills. Option A is incorrect because the process of decoding moves beyond preliteracy skills. Option B is incorrect because using graphic organizers is not developmentally appropriate. Option C is incorrect because the ability to read sight words moves beyond preliteracy skills.

20. A teacher briefly flashes a picture containing three red circles to students and then asks them to re-create the arrangement of the circles with manipulatives. The activity best assesses the students’ understanding of which of the following concepts?

1. Using one-to-one correspondence to count objects
2. Recognizing small numbers of objects automatically
3. Classifying objects according to similar attributes
4. Analyzing objects in terms of their geometric properties
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the teacher is asking the students to subitize, which is the skill of perceiving at a glance how many objects are present in a group. Option A is incorrect because counting is learning the standard sequence of number words and creating a one-to-one correspondence between a number word and an item. Option C is incorrect because classification is grouping objects based on attributes. Option D is incorrect because geometric properties correspond to points, lines, planes and figures and how the measurements, lines and spaces relate to one another.

21. Michael is a first-grade student with a mild visual impairment that affects his spatial reasoning. Which of the following activities is most appropriate for Michael to participate in during a unit on measurement?

1. Using his own body parts to measure various objects
2. Comparing the size of objects depicted in photographs
3. Drawing scaled pictures of objects for comparison
4. Estimating the lengths of objects in the classroom
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because one spatial development skill is to understand how objects occupy space and to understand the size of objects in relation to the human body. The student learns to use his or her own body as a measurement device. Option B is incorrect because objects in photographs may not appear at a scaled size, which would make it difficult to compare them. A tree in one picture may be as large as a person in another picture. Option C is incorrect because creating a scaled representation might be too difficult for a student with spatial reasoning difficulties. Option D is incorrect because visual estimations will be difficult for a student who is unsure of how objects occupy space.

22. Information from the administration of a running record can best be used to plan instruction in

1. conventional spelling.
2. word identification.
3. oral language.
4. grammar usage.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because a running record is an observational tool for evaluating a student's ability to identify and read words in context during an authentic reading activity. Option A is incorrect because the student is not expected to complete a written exercise during a running record. Option C is incorrect because, although the student reads the text passage aloud and may respond to comprehension questions, there is no analysis of expressive or receptive oral language skills in the running record. Option D is incorrect because there is no grammar usage component for either written or oral language in a running record.

23. Which of the following strategies is most likely to increase phonemic awareness in first-grade students?

1. Asking students to brainstorm all the words to describe an object
2. Having students listen and practice poems and songs using alliteration
3. Asking students to identify sight words in a familiar text
4. Having students read independently for a few minutes every day
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because students must develop awareness of individual speech sounds through phonemic awareness activities. Option A is incorrect because having knowledge of descriptive words does not demonstrate awareness of phonemes. Option C is incorrect because identifying sight words in a text does not demonstrate phonemic awareness. Option D is incorrect because having students read independently does not increase phonemic awareness.

#### Competency 006—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of issues and procedures for teaching appropriate student behavior and social skills.

24. An initial Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee meeting is held for a 16-year-old student with an emotional disturbance that has led to a history of disruptive behavior with peers and task avoidance in mathematics, despite the student’s overall successful academic achievement record. Which of the following interventions would be most appropriate for the ARD committee to suggest first?

1. Giving the student extra time to complete mathematics assignments
2. Ignoring minor outbursts and disruptions from the student
3. Arranging for the student to work during class with a partner who has strong mathematics skills
4. Giving the student a self-monitoring checklist to use that emphasizes appropriate behaviors
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because self-monitoring and evaluation strategies have been shown to be effective interventions. Option A is incorrect because the student is already exhibiting avoidance behavior and has shown the capability of completing math work; therefore, extra time would not be an appropriate intervention. Option B is incorrect because the student needs clear boundaries regarding behavior and ignoring the outbursts would not be an appropriate intervention. Option C is incorrect because the student has issues with peers, so working with a partner would not be an appropriate intervention.

25. A sixth-grade general education social studies teacher has just received a new student in the class, Mi from Thailand. The teacher has noticed that the other students have been avoiding Mi for most of the day. Which of the following would be the best approach for the teacher to use in order to help Mi feel welcomed by the other students?

1. Reprimand the students who are not speaking to Mi in an effort to make her feel accepted
2. Have Mi bring in some items from Thailand and allow her to answer questions regarding her culture during class
3. Divide the students into cooperative groups and have Mi work in a variety of groups to aid her in making friends
4. Encourage Mi to make friends by persuading her to speak to the other students regularly during lunch and recess
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because learning about Mi's culture would help students understand her, and with understanding comes acceptance. Option A is incorrect because reprimanding students would be forcing students to accept Mi, which in turn could lead the students to feeling resentful toward her. Option C is incorrect because if students do not have much knowledge about Mi or her culture, they would most likely still isolate her. Option D is incorrect because encouraging Mi to speak to the other students would not necessarily promote acceptance and would still leave her isolated.

26. Max is an upper elementary student who shows signs of aggression toward his peers on the playground. Before implementing a behavior plan for Max, his teacher wants to perform a functional behavioral assessment (FBA). Which of the following is the most appropriate first step for the teacher to take in the development of the FBA for Max?

1. Developing a hypothesis for why Max is aggressive toward his peers on the playground
2. Teaching Max appropriate replacement behaviors to use when he becomes frustrated with his peers
3. Talking to other teachers in the school about possible treatments for Max that will address his inappropriate behaviors
4. Devising a plan to collect relevant data about Max’s inappropriate behaviors
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the next step would be to collect data to determine specific causes for the behaviors. Option A is incorrect because a hypothesis for why the behaviors occur should be formed after data are collected. Option B is incorrect because replacement behaviors are taught after the behavior plan is put into place. Option C is incorrect because talking to other teachers in the school about possible treatments is not relevant to the situation because the teacher is targeting specific behaviors that occur under this teacher’s supervision.

27. A student in a special education inclusion setting is being considered for a disciplinary alternative education placement due to multiple infractions involving violent and unsafe behaviors. The student’s Admission Review Dismissal committee is meeting to conduct a manifestation determination review (MDR). The primary purpose of the MDR is to determine

1. how long the student should be placed in an alternate setting.
2. the antecedent of the behavior that caused the student to misbehave.
3. whether the student's behavior is linked to his or her disability.
4. what changes need to be made to the behavioral intervention plan.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because IDEA requires schools to conduct a manifestation determination to determine if a student's infractions are due to his or her disability (if the student is removed from placement for more than 10 consecutive school days). Option A is incorrect because the MDR is conducted only to determine whether the child's behavior is due to his or her disability, not to determine the duration of alternate placement. Option B is incorrect because analyzing the antecedent of the violent, unsafe behavior is not the primary purpose of MDR. Option D is incorrect because although the current behavioral intervention plan may be discussed at the MDR, if any changes need to be made, this will be determined after the MDR.

28. A special education teacher is working with a group of students who have emotional behavioral disorders (EBD). The teacher's goal is to modify their behaviors to the extent that they can be integrated into the general education setting. Which of the following methods will best help students maintain appropriate behaviors once they join a general education class?

1. Providing a highly structured learning environment
2. Teaching need-satisfying replacement behaviors
3. Using negative reinforcement to encourage acceptable behaviors
4. Praising cooperative behaviors witnessed during group work
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because need-satisfying replacement behaviors teach self-discipline when the student consistently applies the replacement skills. Option A is incorrect because a highly structured learning environment may be effective in the special setting; however, it is unlikely that it can be transferred to a general education setting. Option C is incorrect because negative reinforcement is not appropriate in any educational setting. Option D is incorrect because cooperative behavior is important, but it may not cover the whole realm of misbehaviors exhibited by the students.

#### Competency 007—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of transition issues and procedures across the life span.

29. Which of the following would best assist a high school student with moderate disabilities to fulfill the transition goals of improving daily living skills and gaining satisfactory employment?

1. Providing the student with educational opportunities for reaching maximum potential
2. Providing the student with critical skills through a functional curriculum related to the environment
3. Involving the student in educational opportunities aligned with peers
4. Involving the student in activities that develop critical-thinking skills
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the acquisition of critical skills through a functional curriculum related to daily living and work would encompass skills such as transportation and access to the community. Option A is incorrect because although it is important that students maximize their potential, students with moderate disabilities must be taught skills that help them gain access to the community and workplace for success after school. Option C is incorrect because the law states that students with moderate disabilities must be educated with their nondisabled peers as much as possible. However, this will not fulfill the transition goal for employment and community living skills. Option D is incorrect because developing critical-thinking skills is considered a transition goal and not a strategy to reach employment and community living.

30. To best support a student who is preparing for the transition from public school to postgraduation and adult life, the student's Individualized Education Program (IEP) must include an Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) that

1. outlines the transfer of parental rights to the student.
2. documents the termination of special education and related services.
3. takes into account the student's preferences and interests.
4. predicts postsecondary aptitude based on standardized testing results.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because transition services for a student with a disability must be in the form of a coordinated set of activities that takes into account the student’s strengths, preferences and interests. Option A is incorrect because the transfer of parental rights is not necessarily a primary component of the transition plan. Option B is incorrect because documenting the termination of special education and related services is not a primary component of a transition plan. Option D is incorrect because transition planning should be considered before standardized testing results.

31. Several high school special education students participate in a job fair with the support of their teacher. Students participate in mock job interviews with community business leaders by providing a résumé and answering interview questions. The primary purpose of facilitating the activity is to

1. train students on appropriate job-related socialization tactics.
2. help students explore a broad spectrum of career paths.
3. prepare students for transitioning to the workforce after high school.
4. assess student readiness for part-time internship opportunities.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because transition activities such as developing résumés and participating in mock interviews are useful to high school students who are preparing to transition from school to the workforce. Option A is incorrect because by developing a résumé, students are engaging in skills beyond those related to socialization. Option B is incorrect because the purpose of mock job interviews is not to explore career paths. The purpose is to practice skills needed for job seeking after high school. Option D is incorrect because practicing interview skills does not assess internship readiness.

32. Which of the following strategies is most likely to help a high school student with a learning disability prepare for work after graduation?

1. Creating a transition plan for the student to establish postsecondary goals for vocational training and career education
2. Introducing the student to a potential employer to determine whether the student is a good fit for the job
3. Scheduling a meeting with the parents to discuss what their future goals are for the student
4. Referring the parents to the high school vocational education department
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because creating a transition plan with clear career goals is the most effective way to help a high school student prepare for work after graduation. Option B is incorrect because without a proper transition plan a student cannot be introduced to employers. The student’s strengths and weaknesses must be identified prior to matching him or her to a job in order to protect the student's self-esteem. Option C is incorrect because even though parents' input is important, it is the Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee that makes the final decision of what is best for the student. Option D is incorrect because the transition planning committee should be able to describe the transition plan to the parents, along with the steps that will be taken to determine job skills needed for the student.

### Domain III—Foundations and Professional Roles and Responsibilities

#### Competency 008—The special education teacher understands the philosophical, historical and legal foundations of special education.

33. Which of the following court cases challenged the use of intelligence or aptitude tests as the sole basis for special education placement of minority children?

1. Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia
2. Larry P. v. Riles
3. Luke S. and Hans S. v. Nix
4. Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because the judgment in Larry P. v. Riles found that the intelligence test may not be the sole assessment for minority children and that the assessment must be in the child’s native language. Option A is incorrect because the judgment in Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia found that schools must provide services regardless of the district’s ability to pay. Option C is incorrect because Luke S. and Hans S. v. Nix ensured that assessments must be timely. Option D is incorrect because Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District supported the constitutional rights of children.

34. The primary purpose of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is to provide

1. assistance for students who fail high school.
2. support for all students who are at risk of failure.
3. special education services to students with disabilities.
4. support in the community for adults with disabilities.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the nation’s federal special education law that ensures public schools serve the educational needs of students with disabilities. Option A is incorrect because summer school would be the best option to support failing high school students, not IDEA. Option B is incorrect because Response to Intervention (RTI) best supports students at risk of failure. Option D is incorrect because the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) covers all people with disabilities, no matter their age.

#### Competency 009—The special education teacher applies knowledge of professional roles and responsibilities and adheres to legal and ethical requirements of the profession.

35. A local law enforcement agency presents a school with a subpoena requesting portions of a student's record. Which of the following is the subsequent action the school should take as required by law?

1. The school should contact the family's attorney and request consent to release the records.
2. The school should transmit the records to the agency without parental consent.
3. The school should contact the parents and have them come to the campus to sign a consent form to release the records.
4. The school should have the principal call the requesting agency and make a final decision as to whether records should be released.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because according to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), when a subpoena is issued, the school is required to release the student's records without further consent. Option A is incorrect because no additional consent is required by the family’s attorney. Option C is incorrect because no further consent is required by the parents in this situation. Option D is incorrect because though the principal should be notified for informational purposes, his or her consent is not required to release the student’s records.

36. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which of the following have the right to file for an impartial due process hearing when members of an Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee fail to agree on issues regarding placement of a student?

1. The parents of the student only
2. The teachers of the student only
3. The teachers and the parents of the student
4. The parents of the student and the school
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because both parents and the school may file for an impartial due process hearing. Option A is incorrect because both parents and the school may file for an impartial due process hearing. Options B and C are incorrect because teachers cannot file for an impartial due process hearing.

37. According to the Texas Health and Safety Code, schools have a responsibility to provide care assistance to students with type 1 diabetes. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects a school’s staffing responsibility in regard to such students?

1. Schools with a part-time nurse must provide at least one licensed diabetes care assistant.
2. Schools with a full-time nurse must provide at least two licensed diabetes care assistants.
3. Schools without a full-time nurse must provide at least three unlicensed diabetes care assistants.
4. Schools with a full-time nurse are not required to provide unlicensed diabetes care assistants.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because the bill mandates that principals identify unlicensed personnel to assist with caring for students during the regular school day or while they participate in a school activity. If the school has a full-time nurse, then one unlicensed diabetes care assistant (UDCA) is required; if the school does not have a full-time nurse, then three UDCAs are required, as stated in Section 168.004(a)(2)(A) & (B) of the Texas Health and Safety Code. Options A, B and D are incorrect because the bill mandates that principals identify and provide training for unlicensed personnel to assist with caring for students with diabetes.

38. Which THREE of the following parties are required to be present at an Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee meeting?

1. A representative from the local school district administration
2. The student's parent(s) or guardian(s)
3. A special education teacher
4. A representative from the state department of education
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Options A, B and C are correct because, according to Texas Education Agency guidelines, a representative from the local school district administration, the student’s parent(s) or guardian(s), and a special education teacher are all required to attend a student’s ARD committee meeting. Option D is incorrect because the guidelines do not require a representative from the state department of education to attend ARD committee meetings.

39. Lauren, a fourth-grade student with an auditory impairment, is in a self-contained classroom run by the day school for the deaf. Prior to an annual Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee meeting the principal and the special education staff decide that Lauren should continue to attend that class. Which of the following should the school staff consider before presenting the plan at the meeting?

1. Parent input before making a final decision regarding instructional arrangement
2. Statistical data regarding the number of students being served in self-contained settings compared to inclusive settings
3. Whether there are enough students with auditory impairments to justify running the day school program
4. Availability of personnel with the specialized training to provide necessary services
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because the school district cannot predetermine placement without family input. Option B is incorrect because placement decisions are made based on individual analysis of the student's needed supports. Option C is incorrect because personnel matters cannot limit the district's consideration of proper placement for the individual student. Option D is incorrect because placement decisions should be based on the student's needs and not administrative convenience.

40. An Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee meets to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for a third grader with autism spectrum disorder who qualifies for special education services. To be implemented, the IEP must

1. be approved by a majority vote of the ARD committee.
2. identify a range of transition services.
3. contain a mediation request signed by the ARD committee.
4. be developed collaboratively by the ARD committee.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because IEP decisions must be made in agreement by the ARD committee. Option A is incorrect because a majority vote in favor of the IEP is not allowed by Texas state law. Option B is incorrect because transition services are identified when students turn fourteen years old. Option C is incorrect because a mediation request is only completed if there is a dispute over the IEP or an aspect of special education. Mediation requests are not required as part of the IEP development process. All members of the ARD committee must have the opportunity to participate in a collaborative manner in developing the IEP.

41. Which of the following provides the parents and guardians of students with disabilities with written documentation of their rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)?

1. Parent's Guide to the Admission, Review, and Dismissal Process
2. Notice of Procedural Safeguards
3. Prior written notice
4. Notice of full and individual evaluation
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because a school district must give written information about parents’ rights and options for resolving disputes when a parent signs consent for an initial special education evaluation. Option A is incorrect because schools must provide the Parent’s Guide to the Admission, Review, and Dismissal Process so that parents can effectively participate in an ARD committee meeting for their child. The guide is meant to be a companion document and not a replacement document for the Notice of Procedural Safeguards document, which identifies parents’ rights and responsibilities in federal law. Option C is incorrect because schools must provide parents with prior written notice each time there is a need to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of their child and to initiate or change the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) for their child. Option D is incorrect because the notice of full and individual evaluation notifies families of the type (scope and sequence) of the assessments that will be given.

42. Mr. Lindblom, the parent of a fifth-grade student with an emotional disturbance (ED), arrives at his daughter's Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) meeting. He refuses to enter the meeting room and says, "The school is just going to do what it wants to anyway. Just let me sign the meeting document and get out of here." Which of the following is the most appropriate action by the school staff in response to the situation?

1. Allowing Mr. Lindblom to sign the ARD meeting document in its draft form
2. Proceeding with the meeting without Mr. Lindblom, but telling him he is welcome anytime
3. Informing Mr. Lindblom that he is waiving his right of prior written notice if he chooses not to participate in the meeting
4. Encouraging Mr. Lindblom to participate by clearly explaining his rights according to written procedural safeguards
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option D is correct because the district should make a sincere effort to include the parents and make them aware of their rights. Option A is incorrect because Mr. Lindblom should be encouraged to participate in the decision-making process. Obtaining his signature would not properly indicate his participation. Option B is incorrect because the district should make an effort to include Mr. Lindblom in the meeting. Option C is incorrect because Mr. Lindblom would be entitled to the prior written notice regardless of his participation.

#### Competency 010—The special education teacher knows how to communicate and collaborate effectively in a variety of professional settings.

43. The special education coordinator receives a phone call from a parent who explains that her 3-year-old son, Lukas, was recently screened by a pediatrician who suspects that Lukas may have autism spectrum disorder. The parent states that she and her husband are very concerned about Lukas taking a formal assessment at the school. Which of the following statements would most likely convey to the parents the importance of having Lukas evaluated at this time?

1. Research has shown that most children who receive help early on will be on grade level after a few years.
2. Lukas will benefit from an evaluation because he may qualify for necessary services that will promote learning.
3. The longer Lukas goes without an assessment, the harder it will be for him to relate to others.
4. Without a formal evaluation Lukas will be at risk for lifelong learning or social disabilities that can be complicated to treat.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because informing parents that research indicates the importance of early intervention may help parents to follow through. Option A is incorrect because although research indicates the importance of early intervention, there is no guarantee that most students will be on grade level after a few years, so this statement would give the parents false hope. Options C and D are incorrect because these statements are unlikely to promote the family’s trust or provide hope or incentive.

44. Ms. Flay is the mother of Ethan, a second-grade student diagnosed with a specific learning disability. He recently qualified for special education services. Which of the following resources will best help Ms. Flay understand her rights?

1. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
2. Procedural safeguards
3. Ethan's Individualized Education Program (IEP)
4. Transfer of rights
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because once a year procedural safeguards listing parental rights must be given to parents so they are aware of their rights. Option A is incorrect because reading the entire IDEA would be overwhelming for a parent who is unsure of her rights and is new to special education. Option C is incorrect because although Ms. Flay must be given a copy of Ethan’s IEP, the IEP will not help her understand her rights as a parent. Option D is incorrect because transfer of rights occurs when the student turns 18 and has the legal right to sign for himself or herself.

45. Kara is a fourth-grade student who uses a wheelchair for mobility and has a tracheotomy. The staff member responsible for cleaning and maintaining the tracheotomy while Kara is at school is the

1. health assistant.
2. senior child care assistant.
3. licensed practical nurse.
4. paraprofessional.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because a licensed practical nurse is the only staff member who is allowed to clean or maintain a student’s tracheotomy. Option A is incorrect because a health assistant is not allowed to clean or maintain the tracheotomy. Option B is incorrect because a senior child care assistant is not allowed to clean or maintain the tracheotomy. Option D is incorrect because a paraprofessional is not allowed to clean or maintain the tracheotomy.

46. Mr. Lopez is a middle school special education teacher whose job consists of meeting with general education teachers and providing them with suggestions, explanations of instructional strategies, and techniques to support students with special needs. Working directly with students is not usually part of his everyday job. The teaching model described is best known as

1. collaborative teaching.
2. consultant teaching.
3. parallel teaching.
4. support teaching.
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option B is correct because in consultant teaching the teacher does not usually work directly with students but provides information, assistance, resources and support to the classroom teacher. Option A is incorrect because collaborative teaching usually occurs when both teachers are in the same classroom with both teachers involved in the direct teaching process. There are several forms of collaborative teaching. In some the general education teacher teaches the content and the special education teacher addresses learning and study strategies. However, all models of collaborative teaching involve both teachers directly teaching students, and that is not what is described in this scenario. Option C is incorrect because parallel teaching occurs when two teachers teach the same content to two different groups of students. This model involves direct teaching, which is not what is described in this question. Option D is incorrect because support teaching is a type of co-teaching in which one teacher is the lead teacher and the other offers support to individuals or small groups. In this role, both teachers must plan, but typically one teacher plans the content of the lesson, while the other plans specifically for accommodating students' individual learning or behavioral needs.

### Multiple-Competencies Passages

Questions 47–49 refer to the following information.

Ms. Garrison, a preschool teacher at a public early childhood center, informally observes a new student in her class, Josh, who has Down syndrome. She notes that Josh has delayed expressive and receptive language, difficulty climbing stairs and the ladder to go down the slide due to low muscle tone, and frequently hugs other students and adults at inappropriate times. Ms. Garrison also notes that Josh will raise his hand to ask a question but will yell out his question before called on by the teacher.

#### Competency 002—The special education teacher understands formal and informal assessment and evaluation procedures and knows how to evaluate student competencies to make instructional decisions.

47. Which of the following is the first step that should be taken in planning the most appropriate educational program for Josh?

1. Creating an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for the student
2. Observing the student's interactions with peers in an academic situation
3. Conducting an independent educational evaluation of the student
4. Requesting intervention recommendations from school specialists
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option C is correct because an independent educational evaluation may be used at the request of the parents. Option A is incorrect because before an IEP can be created, the student must be formally assessed with a full psycho-educational evaluation. Option B is incorrect because although informal observation of peer interaction yields helpful information, it is not the first step in planning an educational program. Option D is incorrect because recommendations from school specialists come after the full evaluation.

#### Competency 003—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of procedures for planning instruction for individuals with disabilities.

48. Which of the following classroom accommodations will be most beneficial for Josh?

1. Providing a seat with foot and back support
2. Allowing the student to sit on the floor
3. Having the student participate in rigorous daily exercises
4. Transporting the student in a wheelchair
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because students with low muscle tone benefit from sitting at a desk that provides back and foot support. The extra support keeps the student from becoming too quickly fatigued. Option B is incorrect because students with Down syndrome often have difficulty sitting on the floor without back support. Option C is incorrect because children with Down syndrome have low physical stamina and cannot do rigorous exercise. Option D is incorrect because students with low muscle tone need opportunities to exercise to help strengthen their muscles. Using a wheelchair for transportation would be detrimental to building muscle strength.

#### Competency 006—The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of issues and procedures for teaching appropriate student behavior and social skills.

49. Which of the following strategies will most likely be effective in teaching Josh appropriate social behaviors?

1. Incorporating frequent visual prompts
2. Removing the student from group activities
3. Reading stories that model acceptable behaviors
4. Ignoring the inappropriate behavior
Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expanded
Option A is correct because frequent visual prompts will provide the most immediate support for Josh to engage in the desired behavior. The teacher should then incorporate a fading procedure to reduce the frequency of prompts to support anchoring of the behavior and, then, reinforce the appropriate behavior. Option B is incorrect because removing Josh from a group activity does not teach and support him to practice appropriate skills. Option C is incorrect since it is not the most effective strategy because Josh would benefit most from explicit instruction and reinforcement of the desired behaviors. Option D is incorrect because it is not clear that Josh's behavior is attention-seeking, rather than the result of a lack of instruction in social skills.