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Section 2: How to Prepare for the Exams

This section of the preparation manual provides information to help you prepare to take the TExES exams.

Learn What the Exam Covers

You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same exam. It's true. You may take one version of the exam and your friend may take a different version. Each exam has different questions covering the same subject area, but both versions of the exam measure the same skills and content knowledge.

You'll find specific information on the exam you're taking in the Overview and Exam Framework section of the preparation manual, which outlines the content areas that the exam measures and what percentage of the exam covers each area.

Begin by reviewing the preparation manual for your exam in its entirety, paying particular attention to the content specifications. The content specifications detail the knowledge and skills to be measured on the exam. The Educator Standards section of the prep manual lists the standards necessary for a teacher of that subject.

Once you have reviewed the preparation manual and the standards, you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before exam day. Be sure to also seek other resources to strengthen your content knowledge.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your exam. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group setting. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. Use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you.

Assess How Well You Know the Content

Use your review of the competencies to focus your study time on those areas containing knowledge and skills with which you are less familiar. You should leave yourself time to review the content of all domains and competencies, both the familiar and the less familiar ones, but the focus of your preparation time and priority in your studying should be placed upon those areas about which you are least confident.

Think carefully about how well you know each area; research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparedness. People often glance at the specifications, or at the exam questions (with "a peek" at the answers at the same time), and think that they know the content of the exam. This is why some test takers assume they did well and then are surprised to find out they did not pass.

The exams are demanding enough to require serious review. The longer you've been away from the content the more preparation you will most likely need. If it has been longer than a few months since you've studied your content area, make a concerted effort to prepare. You have everything to gain and nothing to lose from such an approach.

Familiarize Yourself with the Different Types of Exam Questions

The TExES exams include several types of exam questions, which can be broken into two categories: selected response (multiple choice) and constructed response (for which you write or record a response of your own that is scored by trained raters based on scoring guidelines). You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you don't spend time during the exam figuring out how to answer them.

How to Approach Unfamiliar Question Formats

Some questions include introductory information such as a table, graph, or reading passage (often called a stimulus) that provides the information the question asks for. New formats for presenting information are developed from time to time. Exams may include audio and video stimulus materials, such as a movie clip or some kind of animation, instead of a map or reading passage.

Exams may also include interactive types of questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills that go beyond what can be assessed using standard single-selection selected-response questions. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond.

For most questions, you will respond by clicking an oval to choose a single answer choice from a list of options. Other questions may ask you to respond by:

Remember that with every question, you will get clear instructions on how to respond.

Approaches to Answering Selected-Response Questions

The information below describes some selected-response question formats that you will typically see on TExES exams and suggests possible ways to approach thinking about and answering them. These approaches are intended to supplement and complement familiar test-taking strategies with which you may already be comfortable and that work for you. Fundamentally, the most important component in ensuring your success is familiarity with the content that is covered on the exam. This content has been carefully selected to align with the knowledge required to begin a career as a teacher in the state of Texas.

The questions on each exam are designed to assess your knowledge of the content described in the competencies of each exam. In most cases, you are expected to demonstrate more than just your ability to recall factual information. You may be asked to think critically about the information, to analyze it, to compare it with other knowledge you have, or to make a judgment about it.

Be sure to read the directions carefully to ensure that you know what is required for each exam question. Leave no questions unanswered. Your score will be determined by the number of questions you answer correctly.

Question Types

You may see the following types of selected-response questions on the exam:

Below you will find descriptions of these commonly used question formats, along with suggested approaches for responding to each type.

Single Questions

The single-question format presents a direct question or an incomplete statement. It can also include a reading passage, graphic, table or a combination of these. Four answer options appear below the question.


The following question is an example of the single-question format. It tests knowledge of Special Education Supplemental Competency 007: The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of transition issues and procedures across the life span.

The most important reason for involving a student in the creation of goals for transition from high school is that transition goals should reflect

  1. the student’s independent judgment of what is best for him- or herself.
  2. the plans and values of the student’s family.
  3. the realities of the student’s social and economic circumstances.
  4. the student’s own aspirations and interests.
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Think about what it is asking and the situation it is describing. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

As you read this question, think about the process of transition planning for students with disabilities. The question requires an analysis of that planning process for a high school student and asks for the most important reason for having a student in this age range involved in the formal planning for the transition to adult life. Now look at the response options and consider which of them describes the most important reason for the student’s participation in the process.

Option A suggests that a student should be involved in the transition planning process primarily to provide his or her independent judgment of what is best for him- or herself. While a student with a disability may have strong feelings about what would be best for him- or herself, that sense may or may not be accurate or complete. Secondly, transition planning is designed to be a collaborative process. The independent judgment of any individual must be incorporated with other views and other sources of information in order to create an effective transition plan. Option A can therefore be eliminated as the best response to this item.

Option B suggests that having knowledge of the plans and values of the student’s family would be especially helpful for developing the transition plan for a student with a disability. The purpose of the transition plan is to help a student move from school into adult life, and that student should be the focus of the planning process. In addition, a student is unlikely to have the most accurate information about the plans of his or her family. Thus, option B would not be the most important reason for having a student involved in the transition planning process.

Option C suggests that the most important reason for a student with disabilities to participate in the transition planning process would be to help the people involved in transition planning recognize the realities of the student’s social and economic circumstances. It is questionable whether these factors would have any legitimate role in the process of setting goals for a student’s transition plan. In addition, a student might not be the best source for this type of information about his or her family. Therefore, option C would not be the most important reason for having students involved in the transition planning process.

Option D suggests that having knowledge of the student’s aspirations and interests would be useful for transition planning. A student would be the best source of this type of information. The more a student can express his or her own goals and have them considered in transition planning, the more likely it will be that the student will be invested in the transition process. Any transition plan is more effective when the student involved has a sense of ownership. Thus option D, knowledge of the student’s aspirations and interests, would be the most important reason for the student to be involved in transition planning.

Of the alternatives offered, only learning the student’s own aspirations and interests could be considered the most important reason for a student’s involvement in the transition planning process. Therefore, the correct response is option D.

Clustered Questions

Clustered questions are made up of a stimulus and two or more questions relating to the stimulus. The stimulus material can be a reading passage, graphic, table, or any other information necessary to answer the questions that follow.

You can use several different approaches to respond to clustered questions. Some commonly used strategies are listed below.

Strategy 1 Skim the stimulus material to understand its purpose, its arrangement, and/or its content. Then read the questions and refer again to the stimulus material to obtain the specific information you need to answer the questions.
Strategy 2 Read the questions before considering the stimulus material. The theory behind this strategy is that the content of the questions will help you identify the purpose of the stimulus material and locate the information you need to answer the questions.
Strategy 3 Use a combination of both strategies. Apply the "read the stimulus first" strategy with shorter, more familiar stimuli and the "read the questions first" strategy with longer, more complex or less familiar stimuli. You can experiment with the sample questions in the preparation manuals and then use the strategy with which you are most comfortable when you take the actual exam.

Whether you read the stimulus before or after you read the questions, you should read it carefully and critically. You may want to note its important points to help you answer the questions.

As you consider questions set in educational contexts, try to enter into the identified teacher's frame of mind and use that teacher's point of view to answer the questions that accompany the stimulus. Be sure to consider the questions only in terms of the information provided in the stimulus — not in terms of your own experiences or individuals you may have known.


Read the information below about Walter, an elementary student who has been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder; then answer the two questions that follow.

Excerpt from Psychological Evaluation          Age: 9 years, 3 months

Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH)

Subtest Standard Score
Broad Reading 93
Reading Comprehension 93
Broad Written Language 82
Broad Math 108
Listening Comprehension 106

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children — Fourth Edition (WISC–IV)

blank. Standard Score
Verbal Comprehension Index 96
Perpetual Reasoning Index 121
Working Memory Index 104
Processing Speed Index 115
Full Scale IQ 111

Excerpt from interview with Walter’s teacher

Walter has great difficulty interacting with others. He has strong receptive language skills, but he has difficulty expressing himself in writing and in speaking. He uses a computer for writing. Walter is fascinated with numbers. Sometimes it is difficult to get him to do anything but mathematics in the classroom. He also has great difficulty attending to activities and with organizational skills.

Excerpt from Walter’s current IEP

Walter should be placed in the general classroom full time. Now you are prepared to respond to the first of the two questions associated with this stimulus. The first question tests knowledge of Special Education Supplemental Competency 002: The special education teacher understands formal and informal assessment and evaluation procedures and knows how to evaluate student competencies to make instructional decisions.

1. Based on the information in this report, which of the following would best help Walter to succeed in the general classroom?

  1. Weekly meetings with a school social worker
  2. A highly structured classroom environment
  3. Daily tutoring in a resource room
  4. A behavior intervention plan
Suggested Approach

Consider carefully the information presented in the stimulus regarding the student’s strengths and needs; then read the question. Now look at the response options to consider which action or activity would best support the student in the general classroom.

Option A suggests that regular meetings with a school social worker would best help the student succeed in a general education classroom. Typically, a school social worker’s role is to identify resources and make referrals that give students access to appropriate services. A school social worker would not be able to provide direct services that would help the student succeed in the classroom. Option A is not the best response to this question.

Option B suggests that a highly structured environment in the general education classroom would be most helpful to the student. A structured environment typically helps students with needs similar to this student’s to compensate for difficulties they have with attending to activities and organizing materials. Thus, option B accurately describes an approach that would support the student in that setting.

Option C suggests that daily tutoring in the resource room would best help the student succeed. While the student might benefit from consultation or support from a special education teacher or paraprofessional, receiving that help in the resource room may be counterproductive to the goal of the student succeeding in the general classroom. Assistance in the general education classroom could contribute to the student’s ability to succeed in that setting but tutoring in the resource room would not. Therefore, option C may be eliminated.

Option D suggests that a behavior intervention plan should be developed for this student. While the student may have difficulty interacting with others, there is no indication in the assessment results that his general behavior interferes with his learning or the learning of his classmates. A behavior intervention plan would be more appropriate for a student who is acting out in ways that are disruptive.

Option D is not the best response to this item. The correct response, therefore, is option B.

Now you are ready to answer the next question. The second question measures Special Education Supplemental Competency 003: The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of procedures for planning instruction for individuals with disabilities.

2. Which of the following goals is most appropriate to include in Walter’s IEP to improve his expressive-language skills?

  1. Walter will have multiple opportunities to make oral presentations to the class.
  2. Walter will read grade-level texts with a classmate one-on-one.
  3. Walter will independently write a small moment and then read it aloud to the class
  4. Walter will choose a story that he is familiar with and read it to a small group.
Suggested Approach

Option A suggests that providing opportunities to perform oral presentations to the class would improve Walter’s expressive-language skills. While having a student read to the class may help improve expressive language, this is primarily true when a student is comfortable and familiar with the content that is being presented. Option A is not the best response to this question.

Option B suggests that reading grade-level texts to a classmate will improve Walter’s expressive language. While the student may be reading on grade level, reading grade-level texts to a single classmate is not an appropriate goal for a student’s IEP. Option B is not the best response to this question.

Option C suggests that writing a small moment will improve a student’s expressive language. Writing a small moment is a writing technique that allows students to organize their writing and keep them focused and does not necessarily lead to improvements in expressive language. Option C is not the best response to this question.

Option D suggests that having a student choose a story that he or she is familiar with and then read it to a small group will improve expressive-language skills. Reading a story in which one is familiar with the content establishes a foundation for reading aloud so that the student is comfortable. Further, the small-group setting allows Walter to be more relaxed than if he had to read in front of the entire class. Given the student’s age, the assessment results and teacher observations, option D is the best answer to this question because it describes an appropriate goal for this student to improve his expressive-language skills.

Gather Study Materials

For all content areas, think about where you might be able to obtain materials for review:

Do you know a teacher or professor who can help you organize your study? Would a study group suit you and help you maintain momentum? People have different study methods that work for them — use whatever you know that works for you.

Preparation manuals are available for all Texas educator certification program exams. Each prep manual provides a combination of exam preparation and practice, including sample questions and answers with explanations. You can also find informational tutorials and some interactive practice exams.

Plan and Organize Your Time

You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials. Allow yourself plenty of review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. Here are a few tips:

Develop Your Study Plan

A study plan provides a roadmap to prepare for the exams. It can help you understand what skills and knowledge are covered on the exam and where to focus your attention. A study plan worksheet is available on the Texas Educator Certification Examination Program website. You can use this worksheet to:

  1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your exam as defined in the preparation manual.
  2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify where you have thorough understanding and where you need additional study in each content area.
  3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use to study for each content area.
  4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.


Exams with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. As a teacher, you'll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear, understandable way. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words accurately, completely, and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively explain what you know.

Using Study Materials as Part of a Study Group

People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are working toward the same goal. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed answers. In a group, some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics, while others in the group may be better at other topics. As members take turns explaining concepts to each other, everyone builds self-confidence.

If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well, the group can go to a teacher or other expert and get answers efficiently. Because study groups schedule regular meetings, members study in a more disciplined fashion. They also gain emotional support. The group should be large enough so that various people can contribute various kinds of knowledge, but small enough so that it stays focused. Often, three to six members is a good size.

Here are some ways to use the preparation manual as part of a study group:

Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members did not perform well. For example, each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in which someone else did an inadequate job.

Whether you decide to study alone or with a group, remember that the best way to prepare is to have an organized plan. The plan you follow should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn, and it should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting these goals. Then you need to discipline yourself to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule.

Smart Tips for Success

Learn from the experts. Take advantage of these answers to questions you may have and practical tips to help you navigate the exam and make the best use of your time.

Should I guess?

Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty or subtraction for an incorrect answer. When you don't know the answer to a question, try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers and then guess at the correct one. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider every question.

Are there trick questions on the exam?

No. There are no hidden meanings or trick wording. All of the questions on the exam ask about subject matter knowledge in a straightforward manner.

Are there answer patterns on the exam?

No. You might have heard this myth: The answers on selected-response exams follow patterns. Another myth is that there will never be more than two questions with the same lettered answer following each other. Neither myth is true. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject.

Can I write on the erasable sheet(s) I am given?

Yes. You can work out problems or make notes to yourself on the erasable sheet(s) provided to you by the test administrator. You may use your notes in any way that is useful to you, but be sure to enter your final answers on the computer. No credit is given for anything written on the erasable sheet(s).

Tips for Taking the Exam

  1. Skip the questions you find extremely difficult. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass through the exam, leave them blank and mark them. Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the exam, and try to finish with 10 or 15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Even if you don't know the answer the second time you read the questions, see if you can narrow down the possible answers and then guess.
  2. Keep track of the time. Keep an eye on the timer, and be aware of how much time you have left to complete your exam. You will probably have plenty of time to answer all of the questions, but if you find yourself becoming stuck on one question, you might decide to move on and return to that question later.
  3. Read all of the possible answers before selecting one. Then, reread the question to be sure the answer you have selected really answers the question. Remember, a question that contains a phrase such as "Which of the following does NOT ..." is asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion.
  4. Check your answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the exam, look over each question and make sure that you have answered it as you intended. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they could have corrected if they had checked their answers.
  5. Don't worry about your score when you are taking the exam. No one is expected to answer all of the questions correctly. Your score on this exam is not analogous to your score on other similar-looking (but in fact very different!) exams. It doesn't matter on the exams whether you score very high or barely pass. If you meet the minimum passing scores along with any other requirements for obtaining teaching certification, you will receive a license. In other words, what matters is meeting the minimum passing score.
  6. Use your energy to take the exam, not to get angry at it. Getting angry at the exam only increases stress and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. Highly qualified educators and exam development professionals, all with backgrounds in teaching and educational leadership, worked diligently to make the exam a fair and valid measure of your knowledge and skills. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions.

Do Your Best on Exam Day

You followed your study plan. You are ready for the exam. Now it's time to prepare for exam day.

Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual exam date so you avoid cramming. Take a dry run to the test center so you're sure of the route, traffic conditions, and parking. Most of all, you want to eliminate any unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goal — passing the exam!

On the day of the exam, you should:

You cannot control the testing situation, but you can control yourself. Stay calm. The supervisors are well trained and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions. You can think of preparing for this exam as training for an athletic event. Once you have trained, prepared, and rested, give it your best effort...and good luck!

Are You Ready?

Review this list to determine if you're ready to take your exam.

If you answered "yes" to the questions above, your preparation has paid off. Now take the exam, do your best, pass it — and begin your teaching career!

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