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Section 2: How to Prepare for the Exams

This section of the preparation manual provides information to help you prepare to take the TExES exams.

Learn What the Exam Covers

You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same exam. It's true. You may take one version of the exam and your friend may take a different version. Each exam has different questions covering the same subject area, but both versions of the exam measure the same skills and content knowledge.

You'll find specific information on the exam you're taking in the Overview and Exam Framework section of the preparation manual, which outlines the content areas that the exam measures and what percentage of the exam covers each area.

Begin by reviewing the preparation manual for your exam in its entirety, paying particular attention to the content specifications. The content specifications detail the knowledge and skills to be measured on the exam. The Educator Standards section of the prep manual lists the standards necessary for a teacher of that subject.

Once you have reviewed the preparation manual and the standards, you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before exam day. Be sure to also seek other resources to strengthen your content knowledge.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your exam. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group setting. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. Use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you.

Assess How Well You Know the Content

Use your review of the competencies to focus your study time on those areas containing knowledge and skills with which you are less familiar. You should leave yourself time to review the content of all domains and competencies, both the familiar and the less familiar ones, but the focus of your preparation time and priority in your studying should be placed upon those areas about which you are least confident.

Think carefully about how well you know each area; research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparedness. People often glance at the specifications, or at the exam questions (with "a peek" at the answers at the same time), and think that they know the content of the exam. This is why some test takers assume they did well and then are surprised to find out they did not pass.

The exams are demanding enough to require serious review. The longer you've been away from the content the more preparation you will most likely need. If it has been longer than a few months since you've studied your content area, make a concerted effort to prepare. You have everything to gain and nothing to lose from such an approach.

Familiarize Yourself with the Different Types of Exam Questions

The TExES exams include several types of exam questions, which can be broken into two categories: selected response (multiple choice) and constructed response (for which you write or record a response of your own that is scored by trained raters based on scoring guidelines). You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you don't spend time during the exam figuring out how to answer them.

How to Approach Unfamiliar Question Formats

Some questions include introductory information such as a table, graph, or reading passage (often called a stimulus) that provides the information the question asks for. New formats for presenting information are developed from time to time. Exams may include audio and video stimulus materials, such as a movie clip or some kind of animation, instead of a map or reading passage.

Exams may also include interactive types of questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills that go beyond what can be assessed using standard single-selection selected-response questions. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond.

For most questions, you will respond by clicking an oval to choose a single answer choice from a list of options. Other questions may ask you to respond by:

Remember that with every question, you will get clear instructions on how to respond.

Approaches to Answering Selected-Response Questions

The information below describes some selected-response question formats that you will typically see on TExES exams and suggests possible ways to approach thinking about and answering them. These approaches are intended to supplement and complement familiar test-taking strategies with which you may already be comfortable and that work for you. Fundamentally, the most important component in ensuring your success is familiarity with the content that is covered on the exam. This content has been carefully selected to align with the knowledge required to begin a career as a teacher in the state of Texas.

The questions on each exam are designed to assess your knowledge of the content described in the competencies of each exam. In most cases, you are expected to demonstrate more than just your ability to recall factual information. You may be asked to think critically about the information, to analyze it, to compare it with other knowledge you have, or to make a judgment about it.

Be sure to read the directions carefully to ensure that you know what is required for each exam question. Leave no questions unanswered. Your score will be determined by the number of questions you answer correctly.

Question Types

You may see the following types of selected-response questions on the exam:

Below you will find descriptions of these commonly used question formats, along with suggested approaches for responding to each type.

Single Questions

The single-question format presents a direct question or an incomplete statement. It can also include a reading passage, graphic, table or a combination of these. Four answer options appear below the question.

Example 1

The following question is an example of the single-question format. It tests knowledge of History 7–12 Competency 001: The teacher understands significant historical events and developments in ancient world civilizations, factors influencing the development of ancient world civilizations and major characteristics and contributions of ancient world civilizations.

In ancient China, the concept of the Mandate of Heaven served which of the following purposes?

  1. Establishing a code of conduct for interclass relations
  2. Encouraging territorial expansion through warfare
  3. Legitimizing the transfer of power from one dynasty to another
  4. Making ancestor worship an integral part of daily life
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Think about what it is asking and the situation it is describing. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

For example, as you read this question, recall that the concept of the Mandate of Heaven provided divine sanction for an emperor’s right to rule. Now consider how this information might be applied to each of the options.

The concept of the Mandate of Heaven did establish a code of conduct for emperors. Those who behaved immorally or exercised their power in a tyrannical manner lost their right to rule and could be removed through revolution. The concept was not, however, applied to interclass relations (option A).

The concept of the Mandate of Heaven neither prohibited nor encouraged territorial expansion through warfare (option B). In some instances, such aggressive policies could even detract from a ruler’s mandate.

For example, an emperor who attempted to use war as a pretext for tyrannical rule lost the Mandate of Heaven. The concept of the Mandate of Heaven did play a major role in legitimizing the transfer of power from one dynasty to another (option C). As noted above, emperors who behaved immorally or ruled in a tyrannical manner could be removed through revolution. The leaders of a successful revolution afterward laid claim to the Mandate of Heaven as they set about establishing a new dynasty.

Although Chinese emperors were expected to show reverence for their ancestors, the concept of the Mandate of Heaven played little or no part in making ancestor worship an integral part of daily life in ancient China (option D).

This analysis of the four options should lead you to select option C as the correct response.

Example 2

The second example tests knowledge of History 7-12 Competency 017: The teacher understands significant historical developments and events in Texas from 1821 to 1900.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which officially ended the United States-Mexican War in 1848, included which of the following provisions concerning Texas?

  1. It confirmed the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas
  2. It legalized slavery in Texas
  3. It confiscated all lands in Texas held by citizens of Mexico
  4. It created several large Indian reservations in western Texas
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Think about what it is asking and the situation it is describing. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

The question asks you to identify a specific provision of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Even if you do not remember all the details of the treaty, the question is constructed to provide you with some contextual clues.

For instance, the prompt reminds you that the treaty ended the United States-Mexican War. One of the triggers of the conflict was a dispute about the southern border of Texas after it was annexed by the United States in 1845. Mexico claimed that the Nueces River was the border, while the United States claimed that the Rio Grande was the border. If you remember this fact and the fact the United States was victorious in the war, it would be reasonable to infer that the treaty would settle the border in favor of the victor, and thus that option A describes an actual provision of the treaty.

If you remember that Texas had already been admitted to the Union as a slave state in 1845, then it is clear that option B cannot be the correct answer.

Option C is also not correct because in fact the treaty had a clause protecting the rights of Mexican landowners in Texas. However, these claims were often not recognized in practice after the war. If you recall that disputes continued after the war about the failure of United States authorities to protect the land claims of Mexican citizens in Texas and other areas of the Mexican Cession, then it is clear that option C cannot be correct.

You could eliminate option D because the prompt tells you that the treaty involved the United States and Mexico, not any Indian tribes.

This analysis of the four options should lead you to select option A as the correct response.

Clustered Questions

Clustered questions are made up of a stimulus and two or more questions relating to the stimulus. The stimulus material can be a reading passage, graphic, table, or any other information necessary to answer the questions that follow.

You can use several different approaches to respond to clustered questions. Some commonly used strategies are listed below.

Strategy 1 Skim the stimulus material to understand its purpose, its arrangement, and/or its content. Then read the questions and refer again to the stimulus material to obtain the specific information you need to answer the questions.
Strategy 2 Read the questions before considering the stimulus material. The theory behind this strategy is that the content of the questions will help you identify the purpose of the stimulus material and locate the information you need to answer the questions.
Strategy 3 Use a combination of both strategies. Apply the "read the stimulus first" strategy with shorter, more familiar stimuli and the "read the questions first" strategy with longer, more complex or less familiar stimuli. You can experiment with the sample questions in the preparation manuals and then use the strategy with which you are most comfortable when you take the actual exam.

Whether you read the stimulus before or after you read the questions, you should read it carefully and critically. You may want to note its important points to help you answer the questions.

As you consider questions set in educational contexts, try to enter into the identified teacher's frame of mind and use that teacher's point of view to answer the questions that accompany the stimulus. Be sure to consider the questions only in terms of the information provided in the stimulus — not in terms of your own experiences or individuals you may have known.


First read the stimulus (an excerpt from a 1776 letter written by Abigail Adams to her husband John).

Use the information below to answer the questions that follow.

I long to hear that you have declared an independency — and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. If perticuliar [sic] care and attention is not paid to the Laidies [sic] we are determined to foment a Rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.

Now you are prepared to address the first of the two questions associated with this stimulus. The first question tests measures History 7–12 Competency 009: The teacher understands significant historical events and developments of the Revolutionary Era and the early years of the Republic, including the foundations of representative government in the United States.

1. This excerpt best illustrates the use of

  1. republican ideology to advance women’s rights.
  2. natural rights theory to define women’s role in society.
  3. nationalist ideology to achieve gender equality.
  4. social contract theory to improve gender relations.
Suggested Approach

Consider carefully the information presented in the stimulus. Then read and consider this first question. Recall that Adams expresses concern about the unlimited legal power traditionally accorded husbands and suggests that women will not indefinitely submit to such a system of laws.

One central component of the republican ideology of American revolutionaries was the belief that government should be based on the consent of the governed. In the passage, Adams reflects her commitment to this belief by objecting to a legal system that deprives women of any real voice in public affairs. If something is not done about this situation, she suggests, American women will follow the example of male revolutionaries to advance their own rights (option A).

The passage indicates that Adams strongly believes American women are entitled to such natural rights as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. She does not, however, use natural rights theory to define women’s role in society (option B). She is much more concerned about how women can obtain those rights.

Although Adams was just as strongly committed to the achievement of American independence as her husband and other revolutionaries, she makes no allusion to such nationalist ideology in the passage (option C). Notice that she also does not speak about equality of men and women. She is most concerned about the basic civic and legal rights of women, and she hopes to obtain those rights by reforming a system that compels women to observe laws that they have no voice in making.

Adams’s argument in the passage is at best marginally related to social contract theory (option D). Like John Locke, she believed that the people had a right to renegotiate a social contract that they found unacceptable. Her problem, and that of the women for whom she spoke, was obtaining the basic citizenship rights that would enable them to engage in such negotiations.

In this way, analysis of the four options should lead you to select option A as the best response.

Now you are ready to answer the second question. This question measures History 7–12 Competency 012: The teacher understands significant political, economic and social developments in the United States from 1877 to the present.

2. Which of the following nineteenth-century women acted most fully on the views expressed in the excerpt above?

  1. Harriet Beecher Stowe
  2. Dorothea Dix
  3. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  4. Elizabeth Blackwell
Suggested Approach

Again, consider carefully the information presented in the stimulus. Read and consider this second question, which asks how other women acted on the views that Adams expressed in the passage.

One of the most popular and successful writers in nineteenth-century America, Harriet Beecher Stowe (option A) is best remembered as the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Although Stowe played an important role in the struggle against slavery, she never took an active part in the women’s rights movement.

Dorothea Dix (option B) played a pioneering role in the movement to provide improved treatment of the mentally ill. As an outspoken reformer who often appeared before the public, Dix hardly fit the domestic image that nineteenth-century society prescribed for women. Like Stowe, however, she did not play a visible role in the women’s rights movement.

Few women of her time did as much as Elizabeth Cady Stanton (option C) to advance women’s rights. From the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 until her death in 1902, Stanton was in the forefront of every major initiative to expand the civic and legal rights of women. In the Declaration of Sentiments that she wrote for the Seneca Falls Convention, Stanton elaborated on Adams’s views in language that could have been taken from the excerpt above.

The first American woman to obtain a medical degree (1849), Elizabeth Blackwell (option D) had to overcome numerous social barriers in her long and successful career as a physician. Although Blackwell set a noteworthy example for others of her gender, she never became an open advocate of women’s rights.

In this way, analysis of the four options should lead you to select option C as the best response.

Gather Study Materials

For all content areas, think about where you might be able to obtain materials for review:

Do you know a teacher or professor who can help you organize your study? Would a study group suit you and help you maintain momentum? People have different study methods that work for them — use whatever you know that works for you.

Preparation manuals are available for all Texas educator certification program exams. Each prep manual provides a combination of exam preparation and practice, including sample questions and answers with explanations. You can also find informational tutorials and some interactive practice exams.

Plan and Organize Your Time

You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials. Allow yourself plenty of review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. Here are a few tips:

Develop Your Study Plan

A study plan provides a roadmap to prepare for the exams. It can help you understand what skills and knowledge are covered on the exam and where to focus your attention. A study plan worksheet is available on the Texas Educator Certification Examination Program website. You can use this worksheet to:

  1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your exam as defined in the preparation manual.
  2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify where you have thorough understanding and where you need additional study in each content area.
  3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use to study for each content area.
  4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.


Exams with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. As a teacher, you'll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear, understandable way. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words accurately, completely, and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively explain what you know.

Using Study Materials as Part of a Study Group

People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are working toward the same goal. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed answers. In a group, some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics, while others in the group may be better at other topics. As members take turns explaining concepts to each other, everyone builds self-confidence.

If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well, the group can go to a teacher or other expert and get answers efficiently. Because study groups schedule regular meetings, members study in a more disciplined fashion. They also gain emotional support. The group should be large enough so that various people can contribute various kinds of knowledge, but small enough so that it stays focused. Often, three to six members is a good size.

Here are some ways to use the preparation manual as part of a study group:

Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members did not perform well. For example, each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in which someone else did an inadequate job.

Whether you decide to study alone or with a group, remember that the best way to prepare is to have an organized plan. The plan you follow should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn, and it should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting these goals. Then you need to discipline yourself to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule.

Smart Tips for Success

Learn from the experts. Take advantage of these answers to questions you may have and practical tips to help you navigate the exam and make the best use of your time.

Should I guess?

Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty or subtraction for an incorrect answer. When you don't know the answer to a question, try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers and then guess at the correct one. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider every question.

Are there trick questions on the exam?

No. There are no hidden meanings or trick wording. All of the questions on the exam ask about subject matter knowledge in a straightforward manner.

Are there answer patterns on the exam?

No. You might have heard this myth: The answers on selected-response exams follow patterns. Another myth is that there will never be more than two questions with the same lettered answer following each other. Neither myth is true. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject.

Can I write on the erasable sheet(s) I am given?

Yes. You can work out problems or make notes to yourself on the erasable sheet(s) provided to you by the test administrator. You may use your notes in any way that is useful to you, but be sure to enter your final answers on the computer. No credit is given for anything written on the erasable sheet(s).

Tips for Taking the Exam

  1. Skip the questions you find extremely difficult. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass through the exam, leave them blank and mark them. Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the exam, and try to finish with 10 or 15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Even if you don't know the answer the second time you read the questions, see if you can narrow down the possible answers and then guess.
  2. Keep track of the time. Keep an eye on the timer, and be aware of how much time you have left to complete your exam. You will probably have plenty of time to answer all of the questions, but if you find yourself becoming stuck on one question, you might decide to move on and return to that question later.
  3. Read all of the possible answers before selecting one. Then, reread the question to be sure the answer you have selected really answers the question. Remember, a question that contains a phrase such as "Which of the following does NOT ..." is asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion.
  4. Check your answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the exam, look over each question and make sure that you have answered it as you intended. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they could have corrected if they had checked their answers.
  5. Don't worry about your score when you are taking the exam. No one is expected to answer all of the questions correctly. Your score on this exam is not analogous to your score on other similar-looking (but in fact very different!) exams. It doesn't matter on the exams whether you score very high or barely pass. If you meet the minimum passing scores along with any other requirements for obtaining teaching certification, you will receive a license. In other words, what matters is meeting the minimum passing score.
  6. Use your energy to take the exam, not to get angry at it. Getting angry at the exam only increases stress and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. Highly qualified educators and exam development professionals, all with backgrounds in teaching and educational leadership, worked diligently to make the exam a fair and valid measure of your knowledge and skills. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions.

Do Your Best on Exam Day

You followed your study plan. You are ready for the exam. Now it's time to prepare for exam day.

Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual exam date so you avoid cramming. Take a dry run to the test center so you're sure of the route, traffic conditions, and parking. Most of all, you want to eliminate any unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goal — passing the exam!

On the day of the exam, you should:

You cannot control the testing situation, but you can control yourself. Stay calm. The supervisors are well trained and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions. You can think of preparing for this exam as training for an athletic event. Once you have trained, prepared, and rested, give it your best effort...and good luck!

Are You Ready?

Review this list to determine if you're ready to take your exam.

If you answered "yes" to the questions above, your preparation has paid off. Now take the exam, do your best, pass it — and begin your teaching career!

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