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Section 2: How to Prepare for the Exams

This section of the preparation manual provides information to help you prepare to take the TExES exams.

Learn What the Exam Covers

You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same exam. It's true. You may take one version of the exam and your friend may take a different version. Each exam has different questions covering the same subject area, but both versions of the exam measure the same skills and content knowledge.

You'll find specific information on the exam you're taking in the Overview and Exam Framework section of the preparation manual, which outlines the content areas that the exam measures and what percentage of the exam covers each area.

Begin by reviewing the preparation manual for your exam in its entirety, paying particular attention to the content specifications. The content specifications detail the knowledge and skills to be measured on the exam. The Educator Standards section of the prep manual lists the standards necessary for a teacher of that subject.

Once you have reviewed the preparation manual and the standards, you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before exam day. Be sure to also seek other resources to strengthen your content knowledge.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your exam. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group setting. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. Use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you.

Assess How Well You Know the Content

Use your review of the competencies to focus your study time on those areas containing knowledge and skills with which you are less familiar. You should leave yourself time to review the content of all domains and competencies, both the familiar and the less familiar ones, but the focus of your preparation time and priority in your studying should be placed upon those areas about which you are least confident.

Think carefully about how well you know each area; research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparedness. People often glance at the specifications, or at the exam questions (with "a peek" at the answers at the same time), and think that they know the content of the exam. This is why some test takers assume they did well and then are surprised to find out they did not pass.

The exams are demanding enough to require serious review. The longer you've been away from the content the more preparation you will most likely need. If it has been longer than a few months since you've studied your content area, make a concerted effort to prepare. You have everything to gain and nothing to lose from such an approach.

Familiarize Yourself with the Different Types of Exam Questions

The TExES exams include several types of exam questions, which can be broken into two categories: selected response (multiple choice) and constructed response (for which you write or record a response of your own that is scored by trained raters based on scoring guidelines). You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you don't spend time during the exam figuring out how to answer them.

How to Approach Unfamiliar Question Formats

Some questions include introductory information such as a table, graph, or reading passage (often called a stimulus) that provides the information the question asks for. New formats for presenting information are developed from time to time. Exams may include audio and video stimulus materials, such as a movie clip or some kind of animation, instead of a map or reading passage.

Exams may also include interactive types of questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills that go beyond what can be assessed using standard single-selection selected-response questions. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond.

For most questions, you will respond by clicking an oval to choose a single answer choice from a list of options. Other questions may ask you to respond by:

Remember that with every question, you will get clear instructions on how to respond.

Approaches to Answering Selected-Response Questions

The information below describes some selected-response question formats that you will typically see on TExES exams and suggests possible ways to approach thinking about and answering them. These approaches are intended to supplement and complement familiar test-taking strategies with which you may already be comfortable and that work for you. Fundamentally, the most important component in ensuring your success is familiarity with the content that is covered on the exam. This content has been carefully selected to align with the knowledge required to begin a career as a teacher in the state of Texas.

The questions on each exam are designed to assess your knowledge of the content described in the competencies of each exam. In most cases, you are expected to demonstrate more than just your ability to recall factual information. You may be asked to think critically about the information, to analyze it, to compare it with other knowledge you have, or to make a judgment about it.

Be sure to read the directions carefully to ensure that you know what is required for each exam question. Leave no questions unanswered. Your score will be determined by the number of questions you answer correctly.

Question Types

You may see the following types of selected-response questions on the exam:

Below you will find descriptions of these question formats, along with suggested approaches for responding to each type.

“Select the Correct Transcription” Questions

In this kind of question you are given a text statement, or a math problem or statement, in print and four simulated braille transcriptions as answer choices. You are asked to select the correct braille transcription of the print material from the four answer choices given. One of the transcriptions given as answer choices is correct. Each of the other three contains one or more transcription errors.

Example 1

The following question tests knowledge of Braille Domain I, Competency 001: The teacher of students with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, knows how to read UEB.

Directions: Read the sentence given; then select the correct Unified English Braille (UEB) transcription of the sentence from the answer choices given.

After turning in her semester project, Sandy could not wait for summer break.

  1. Transcription matches the sentence except for the word Sandy, which is incorrectly transcribed.

  2. Transcription matches the sentence except for the word could, which is incorrectly transcribed.

  3. Transcription matches the sentence except for the word semester, which is incorrectly transcribed.

  4. Transcription matches the sentence without errors.
Suggested Approach

As you read the text, think about how it should be transcribed into UEB. What contractions and symbols should be used? Are any strong contractions or shortforms needed? Are certain words alphabetic wordsigns? What contraction rules apply? Having an idea of what the transcription should look like before you look at the answer choices will help you select the correct transcription from the four answer choices.

Remember to consider capitalization, typeforms, and punctuation, since these are also assessed on the test. You should know the correct braille symbols and the rules for using them.

Read each of the answer choices until you find the one that is the correct transcription of the text into UEB. In Example 1, the correct answer is option D.

Here are some additional strategies to try if, after reading through the answer choices, you have not identified the correct transcription.

Eliminate incorrect answers. If you find any error in an answer choice, that answer choice cannot be the correct answer. When looking for errors in the answer choices, you may want to check for the following types of errors:

  1. Rule violations. Are any of the rules for use of certain types of contractions broken? For example, do any of the transcriptions use contractions that are correct for English Braille American Edition (EBAE) but incorrect for UEB? Do any of them spell out a word that should be contracted, use a contraction for a word that should be spelled out, or use an incorrect contraction? For instance, in Example 1, option B fails to use the required shortform for “could.”
  2. Reversals. Certain braille symbols are reversals (mirror images) of each other. Do any of the answer choices include symbols that are reversals of the correct symbol? In Example 1, option A uses a reversal of the “and” groupsign in “Sandy” and option C uses a reversal of the “st” groupsign in “semester.”
  3. Spacing. Spacing is important in braille. Does an answer choice include symbols that are not spaced correctly?
  4. Punctuation, typeforms, and capitalization. Even if you thought about capitalization, typeforms, and punctuation when you first read the text, it may be helpful to check for this type of error.

Identify where the answer choices differ, and focus your attention on those parts of the transcription. For example, in option A “Sandy” is transcribed differently than it is in options B, C and D. One of these two ways of transcribing “Sandy” must be incorrect. In this case, the transcription in option A is incorrect. In option B, “could” is transcribed differently than it is in options A, C and D. Again, one of those two ways of transcribing “could” must be incorrect. In this case, the transcription in option B is incorrect. Finally, in option C, “semester” is transcribed differently than it is in options A, B and D, and it is the transcription in option C that is incorrect. Option D uses the correct transcription in each of these cases, and is correct in all other respects, and so the correct answer is option D.

Verify your answer. Although to answer the question you only need to identify the correct transcription, you can check that your answer is correct by identifying transcription errors in each of the other answer choices.

Consult the Reference Guide. As indicated in Section 5, certain signs in both UEB and Nemeth are provided in the Reference Guide.

Example 2

The following question tests knowledge of Braille Domain I, Competency 002: The teacher of students with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, knows how to read Nemeth Code.

Directions: Read the problem or statement given; then select the correct Nemeth Code transcription from the answer choices given.

$4,000 + $1,000 = ?

  1. The dollar signs in the transcription are incorrect.

  2. The transcription contains no errors.

  3. The four and zeros in the transcription are incorrect.

  4. The equals sign in the transcription is incorrect.
Suggested Approach

As with Example 1, which presented a text statement transcribed into UEB, it helps to read the math statement presented in Example 2 carefully and think about what the Nemeth Code transcription should look like and what elements should be included. Then follow a similar approach: Eliminate incorrect answers, identify where the answer choices differ, and verify your answer. Looking for errors, we can determine that in option A a numeric indicator is inappropriately inserted after each dollar sign; in option C the symbol for the number 4 is used when the symbol for the number 0 is required, and vice versa; and in option D the equals sign is transcribed incorrectly. Option B makes no errors and is the correct answer.

If, when examining the options, you did not note the errors just described, a next step would be trying the strategy of identifying where the answer choices differ. If you compare the answer choices, you will notice that there are several differences. First, in option A the dollar sign is treated differently from options B, C and D; the treatment in option A is the incorrect one. In option C the numbers 4 and 0 are transcribed differently than they are in options A, B and D, and the transcription of these numbers in option C is incorrect. Finally, the equals sign is transcribed differently in option D than in options A, B and C, and the transcription of the equals sign is incorrect in option D.

A final check of option B confirms that it does not contain any transcription errors and so in Example 2, the correct answer is option B.

“UEB Error Correction” Questions
Example 3

The following question tests knowledge of Braille Domain I, Competency 001: The teacher of students with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, knows how to read UEB.

Directions: This question is based on a sentence and its Unified English Braille (UEB) transcription, which includes some errors Select the best of the answer choices given.

Her collection of dessert recipes filled three 2-inch binders.

A U E B transcription of the sentence above her collection of dessert recipes filled three 2-inch binders.

Which of the following should be done to correct an error in the UEB transcription?

  1. Transcribe the word “binders” asthis transcription of binders uses the mirror image of in as a part of the word
  2. Transcribe the word “three” asthis transcription of three uses s h as the strong group sign instead of t h
  3. Transcribe the phrase “2-inch” asthis transcription of 2-inch contains no errors
  4. Transcribe the word “dessert” asthis transcription of dessert uses the e r strong group sign
Suggested Approach

You should start by looking closely at the printed sentence and its transcription, looking for an error made in the transcription, and thinking about how the error should be corrected. Then examine the answer choices to find the one that best matches the error and required correction you have identified. Taking this approach, you should observe that the transcription uses an incorrect symbol for the hyphen, and that the correction to the phrase “2-inch” offered by option C corrects that error.

Another approach is to consider each option and determine whether it both identifies an error made in the transcription and describes a change that would correct that error. You should not select an option that recommends a change that does not correct an error, even if the option identifies what you think is an error in the transcription. Examining the options, you should observe that options A, B and D suggest changes that create, rather than correct, errors in the transcription: Option A is incorrect because it recommends the mirror image of “in” as a part of the word “binders,” but the transcription correctly uses the lower groupsign for “in.” Option B is incorrect because it recommends the “sh” strong groupsign, but the transcription correctly uses the “th” strong groupsign. Option D is incorrect because it recommends spelling out the word “dessert,” but the transcription correctly uses the “er” strong groupsign. Therefore, the correct answer is option C.

Approaches to Transcription Assignments

Each transcription assignment includes detailed and specific directions, including:

  • The device (slate and stylus or braillewriter) you are to use to produce the transcription
  • The braille code you are to use to produce the transcription (UEB or Nemeth Code)

Each assignment will include additional instructions that are specific to the assignment. Using the wrong device will result in an unscorable transcription. Transcribing into the wrong braille code will also result in an unscorable transcription. Unscorable transcriptions will be assigned a score of 0. Failure to follow any of the other instructions will result in errors that will be counted as incorrect and so is likely to negatively affect your score on the transcription. Therefore, before beginning any of the transcription assignments, you should first make sure that you have read and understood the instructions for the assignment.

Because erasures detectable by touch are counted as errors, if you make a transcription error, consider carefully whether you should attempt to erase it or whether it would be better to restart the transcription on a new sheet of braille paper. If you need additional braille paper, it will be given to you on request. If you do decide to erase, do so as carefully and thoroughly as possible and make sure that your erasure is not detectable by touch. When erasing, it is desirable to use a braille eraser.

Gather Study Materials

For all content areas, think about where you might be able to obtain materials for review:

Do you know a teacher or professor who can help you organize your study? Would a study group suit you and help you maintain momentum? People have different study methods that work for them — use whatever you know that works for you.

Preparation manuals are available for all Texas educator certification program exams. Each prep manual provides a combination of exam preparation and practice, including sample questions and answers with explanations. You can also find informational tutorials and some interactive practice exams.

Plan and Organize Your Time

You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials. Allow yourself plenty of review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. Here are a few tips:

Develop Your Study Plan

A study plan provides a roadmap to prepare for the exams. It can help you understand what skills and knowledge are covered on the exam and where to focus your attention. A study plan worksheet is available on the Texas Educator Certification Examination Program website. You can use this worksheet to:

  1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your exam as defined in the preparation manual.
  2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify where you have thorough understanding and where you need additional study in each content area.
  3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use to study for each content area.
  4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.


Exams with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. As a teacher, you'll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear, understandable way. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words accurately, completely, and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively explain what you know.

Using Study Materials as Part of a Study Group

People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are working toward the same goal. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed answers. In a group, some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics, while others in the group may be better at other topics. As members take turns explaining concepts to each other, everyone builds self-confidence.

If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well, the group can go to a teacher or other expert and get answers efficiently. Because study groups schedule regular meetings, members study in a more disciplined fashion. They also gain emotional support. The group should be large enough so that various people can contribute various kinds of knowledge, but small enough so that it stays focused. Often, three to six members is a good size.

Here are some ways to use the preparation manual as part of a study group:

Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members did not perform well. For example, each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in which someone else did an inadequate job.

Whether you decide to study alone or with a group, remember that the best way to prepare is to have an organized plan. The plan you follow should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn, and it should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting these goals. Then you need to discipline yourself to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule.

Smart Tips for Success

Learn from the experts. Take advantage of these answers to questions you may have and practical tips to help you navigate the exam and make the best use of your time.

Should I guess?

Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty or subtraction for an incorrect answer. When you don't know the answer to a question, try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers and then guess at the correct one. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider every question.

Are there trick questions on the exam?

No. There are no hidden meanings or trick wording. All of the questions on the exam ask about subject matter knowledge in a straightforward manner.

Are there answer patterns on the exam?

No. You might have heard this myth: The answers on selected-response exams follow patterns. Another myth is that there will never be more than two questions with the same lettered answer following each other. Neither myth is true. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject.

Can I write on the erasable sheet(s) I am given?

Yes. You can work out problems or make notes to yourself on the erasable sheet(s) provided to you by the test administrator. You may use your notes in any way that is useful to you, but be sure to enter your final answers on the computer. No credit is given for anything written on the erasable sheet(s).

Tips for Taking the Exam

  1. Skip the questions you find extremely difficult. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass through the exam, leave them blank and mark them. Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the exam, and try to finish with 10 or 15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Even if you don't know the answer the second time you read the questions, see if you can narrow down the possible answers and then guess.
  2. Keep track of the time. Keep an eye on the timer, and be aware of how much time you have left to complete your exam. You will probably have plenty of time to answer all of the questions, but if you find yourself becoming stuck on one question, you might decide to move on and return to that question later.
  3. Read all of the possible answers before selecting one. Then, reread the question to be sure the answer you have selected really answers the question. Remember, a question that contains a phrase such as "Which of the following does NOT ..." is asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion.
  4. Check your answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the exam, look over each question and make sure that you have answered it as you intended. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they could have corrected if they had checked their answers.
  5. Don't worry about your score when you are taking the exam. No one is expected to answer all of the questions correctly. Your score on this exam is not analogous to your score on other similar-looking (but in fact very different!) exams. It doesn't matter on the exams whether you score very high or barely pass. If you meet the minimum passing scores along with any other requirements for obtaining teaching certification, you will receive a license. In other words, what matters is meeting the minimum passing score.
  6. Use your energy to take the exam, not to get angry at it. Getting angry at the exam only increases stress and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. Highly qualified educators and exam development professionals, all with backgrounds in teaching and educational leadership, worked diligently to make the exam a fair and valid measure of your knowledge and skills. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions.

Do Your Best on Exam Day

You followed your study plan. You are ready for the exam. Now it's time to prepare for exam day.

Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual exam date so you avoid cramming. Take a dry run to the test center so you're sure of the route, traffic conditions, and parking. Most of all, you want to eliminate any unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goal — passing the exam!

On the day of the exam, you should:

You cannot control the testing situation, but you can control yourself. Stay calm. The supervisors are well trained and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions. You can think of preparing for this exam as training for an athletic event. Once you have trained, prepared, and rested, give it your best effort...and good luck!

Are You Ready?

Review this list to determine if you're ready to take your exam.

If you answered "yes" to the questions above, your preparation has paid off. Now take the exam, do your best, pass it — and begin your teaching career!

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