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Section 2: How to Prepare for the Exams

This section of the preparation manual provides information to help you prepare to take the TExES exams.

Learn What the Exam Covers

You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same exam. It's true. You may take one version of the exam and your friend may take a different version. Each exam has different questions covering the same subject area, but both versions of the exam measure the same skills and content knowledge.

You'll find specific information on the exam you're taking in the Overview and Exam Framework section of the preparation manual, which outlines the content areas that the exam measures and what percentage of the exam covers each area.

Begin by reviewing the preparation manual for your exam in its entirety, paying particular attention to the content specifications. The content specifications detail the knowledge and skills to be measured on the exam. The Educator Standards section of the prep manual lists the standards necessary for a teacher of that subject.

Once you have reviewed the preparation manual and the standards, you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before exam day. Be sure to also seek other resources to strengthen your content knowledge.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your exam. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group setting. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. Use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you.

Assess How Well You Know the Content

Use your review of the competencies to focus your study time on those areas containing knowledge and skills with which you are less familiar. You should leave yourself time to review the content of all domains and competencies, both the familiar and the less familiar ones, but the focus of your preparation time and priority in your studying should be placed upon those areas about which you are least confident.

Think carefully about how well you know each area; research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparedness. People often glance at the specifications, or at the exam questions (with "a peek" at the answers at the same time), and think that they know the content of the exam. This is why some test takers assume they did well and then are surprised to find out they did not pass.

The exams are demanding enough to require serious review. The longer you've been away from the content the more preparation you will most likely need. If it has been longer than a few months since you've studied your content area, make a concerted effort to prepare. You have everything to gain and nothing to lose from such an approach.

Familiarize Yourself with the Different Types of Exam Questions

The TExES exams include several types of exam questions, which can be broken into two categories: selected response (multiple choice) and constructed response (for which you write or record a response of your own that is scored by trained raters based on scoring guidelines). You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you don't spend time during the exam figuring out how to answer them.

How to Approach Unfamiliar Question Formats

Some questions include introductory information such as a table, graph, or reading passage (often called a stimulus) that provides the information the question asks for. New formats for presenting information are developed from time to time. Exams may include audio and video stimulus materials, such as a movie clip or some kind of animation, instead of a map or reading passage.

Exams may also include interactive types of questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills that go beyond what can be assessed using standard single-selection selected-response questions. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond.

For most questions, you will respond by clicking an oval to choose a single answer choice from a list of options. Other questions may ask you to respond by:

Remember that with every question, you will get clear instructions on how to respond.

Approaches to Answering Selected-Response Questions

The information below describes some selected-response question formats that you will typically see on TExES exams and suggests possible ways to approach thinking about and answering them. These approaches are intended to supplement and complement familiar test-taking strategies with which you may already be comfortable and that work for you. Fundamentally, the most important component in ensuring your success is familiarity with the content that is covered on the exam. This content has been carefully selected to align with the knowledge required to begin a career as a teacher in the state of Texas.

The questions on each exam are designed to assess your knowledge of the content described in the competencies of each exam. In most cases, you are expected to demonstrate more than just your ability to recall factual information. You may be asked to think critically about the information, to analyze it, to compare it with other knowledge you have, or to make a judgment about it.

Be sure to read the directions carefully to ensure that you know what is required for each exam question. Leave no questions unanswered. Your score will be determined by the number of questions you answer correctly.

Question Types

You may see the following types of selected-response questions on the exam:

  • Single Questions
  • Clustered Questions

Below you will find descriptions of these commonly used question formats, along with suggested approaches for responding to each type.

Single Questions

The single-question format presents a direct question or an incomplete statement. It can also include a reading passage, movie clip, graphic, table, or a combination of these.


The following question is an example of the single-question format. It tests knowledge of Chemistry 7–12 Competency 011: The teacher understands energy transformations that occur in physical and chemical processes.

For a given reaction, Delta H equals 13.6 kJ and Delta S equals 145 J/K. Assuming these values are independent of temperature, at what temperature will the reaction become spontaneous?

  1. 94 K
  2. 94 degrees C
  3. 11 K
  4. 11 degrees C
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Think about what it is asking and the situation it is describing. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

The first step in this problem is to consider the information given and the question being asked. In this case, the change in enthalpy (Delta H) and change in disorder or entropy (Delta S) are given for a chemical reaction, and you are asked for the temperature at which the reaction occurs spontaneously. The spontaneity of a reaction can be determined by calculating the Gibbs free energy of a system (Delta G). The free energy of a system is the maximum useful energy obtainable in the form of work from a given reaction at constant temperature and pressure. If Delta G is greater than 0, then the reaction is nonspontaneous. If Delta G is less than 0, then the reaction is spontaneous. The system is at equilibrium when there is no net gain or loss of free energy within the system (Delta G equals 0). Equilibrium is also the threshold at which the reaction becomes spontaneous. The expression for the free energy is Delta G equals Delta H minus T Delta S, where T, the temperature, is expressed using the Kelvin scale.

Thus, the question requires that you determine at what temperature the reaction will become spontaneous, Delta G equals 0.

Because Delta G equals 0, then T delta S equals delta H, and T equals delta H over delta S. Inserting the given values gives T equals 13.6 kJ over 145 J/K. Converting kilojoules to joules, 13.6 kJ = 13,600 J, and simplifying results in T equals 13,600 J over 145 J/K equals 93.8 K. This answer is closest to response option A. Option B comes from confusing the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. Option C results from incorrectly solving the expression for Delta G equals 0 and obtaining T equals delta S over delta H. Option D comes from both incorrectly solving the equation and using the incorrect temperature scale.

Clustered Questions

Clustered questions are made up of a stimulus and two or more questions relating to the stimulus. The stimulus material can be a reading passage, graphic, table, or any other information necessary to answer the questions that follow.

You can use several different approaches to respond to clustered questions. Some commonly used strategies are listed below.

Strategy 1 Skim the stimulus material to understand its purpose, its arrangement, and/or its content. Then read the questions and refer again to the stimulus material to obtain the specific information you need to answer the questions.
Strategy 2 Read the questions before considering the stimulus material. The theory behind this strategy is that the content of the questions will help you identify the purpose of the stimulus material and locate the information you need to answer the questions.
Strategy 3 Use a combination of both strategies. Apply the "read the stimulus first" strategy with shorter, more familiar stimuli and the "read the questions first" strategy with longer, more complex or less familiar stimuli. You can experiment with the sample questions in the preparation manuals and then use the strategy with which you are most comfortable when you take the actual exam.

Whether you read the stimulus before or after you read the questions, you should read it carefully and critically. You may want to note its important points to help you answer the questions.

As you consider questions set in educational contexts, try to enter into the identified teacher's frame of mind and use that teacher's point of view to answer the questions that accompany the stimulus. Be sure to consider the questions only in terms of the information provided in the stimulus — not in terms of your own experiences or individuals you may have known.


First read the stimulus (a description of a chemistry laboratory procedure).

Use the information below to answer the questions that follow.

To determine the amount of table salt in a salty liquid food product, 0.2 M silver nitrate solution is slowly added to 50 mL of the food product. A small amount of sodium chromate is also added to the solution as an indicator. The chromate ions react with the excess silver ions to produce an orange/red color.

Now you are prepared to respond to the first of the three questions associated with this stimulus. The first question tests knowledge of Chemistry 7–12 Competency 010: The teacher understands types and properties of solutions.

1. A total of 25.0 mL of silver nitrate is added to the liquid food product before a color change is observed. What is the mass of the silver ions added to the food product?

  1. 0.005 g
  2. 0.20 g
  3. 0.24 g
  4. 0.54 g
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Think about what it is asking and the situation it is describing. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

To determine the mass of silver ions added to the liquid food product, information from both the stimulus and the question must be used. First, the number of moles of silver nitrate added can be calculated by multiplying the molarity of the silver nitrate solution (0.2 M) by the volume added in liters (0.025 L) before the color change occurred. The result of the calculation indicates that 0.005 mole of silver nitrate were added to the liquid food product. The number of moles of silver ions added is equal to the number of moles of silver nitrate added because the dissociation of 1 mole of silver nitrate results in 1 mole of silver ions. Multiplying the number of moles of silver ions added (0.005 mole) by the molar mass of the silver ion (107.9 grams/mole) gives the mass of silver ions added to the liquid food product as 0.54 gram. Therefore, the correct response is option D.

Option A is incorrect because it represents the number of moles of silver ions added but uses a unit of mass (grams). Option B is incorrect because it represents the molarity of the silver nitrate used in the reaction, but again uses a unit of mass (grams). Option C represents a correct calculation of the number of moles of silver ions added, but it then shows that this number is incorrectly multiplied by the atomic number of silver (47).

Now you are ready to answer the second question. This question also tests knowledge of Chemistry 7–12 Competency 010: The teacher understands types and properties of solutions.

2. Which of the following is the net ionic equation that represents the reaction occurring between the silver nitrate and the dissolved table salt in the solution?

  1. AgNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus Na positive left paren aq right paren which becomes NaNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus Ag left paren s right paren
  2. AgNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus Na positive left paren aq right paren which becomes Agleft paren s right paren plus Na positive left paren aq right paren plus NO subscript 3 negative left paren aq right paren
  3. AgNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus Cl negative left paren aq right paren which becomes ClNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus Ag left paren s right paren
  4. CAg positive left paren aq right paren plus Cl negative left paren aq right paren which becomes NaNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus AgCl left paren s right paren
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

This question asks which of four equations can be used to represent the reaction described in the stimulus.

The silver nitrate and the sodium chloride in the food product react according to the balanced molecular equation shown below.

AgNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren plus NaCl left paren aq right paren which becomes AgCl left paren s right paren plus NaNO subscript 3 left paren aq right paren

Because AgNO subscript 3, NaCl and NaNO subscript 3 are all soluble ionic compounds, the equation can be written in ionic form, which shows ions in solution.

Ag positive left paren aq right paren plus NO subscript 3 negative left paren aq right paren plus Na positive left paren aq right paren plus Cl negative left paren aq right paren which becomes AgCl left paren s right paren plus Na positive left paren aq right paren + NO subscript 3 negative left paren aq right paren

Spectator ions are ions that are not directly involved in the chemical reaction and can be omitted when writing an equation for the net chemical reaction.

In this case, the sodium and nitrate ions are spectator ions. Omitting spectator ions yields the following equation.

Ag positive left paren aq right paren plus Cl negative left paren aq right paren which becomes AgCl left paren s right paren

Therefore, the correct response is option D.

Options A and B both incorrectly drop the chloride ion as a spectator ion. Chloride ions combine with silver ions to form the solid precipitate silver chloride. The equations in both options A and B erroneously identify elemental silver as the solid product of the reaction. Option C incorrectly brings two negatively charged ions together in the compound ClNO subscript 3. Option C, like options A and B, also shows the production of solid silver.

Now you are ready to answer the third question. The question below tests knowledge of Chemistry 7–12 Competency 001: The teacher understands how to select and manage learning activities to ensure the safety of all students and the correct use and care of natural resources, materials, equipment and technologies.

3. Which of the following analytic techniques is used in this analysis?

  1. Titration
  2. Chromatography
  3. Calorimetry
  4. Electrolysis
Suggested Approach

Read the question carefully and critically. Eliminate any obviously wrong answers, select the correct answer choice and mark your answer.

This question asks for identification of the analytic technique that is described in the stimulus. Option A gives the technique called "titration." Titration involves the gradual addition of a solution of known concentration to a known quantity of another solution just to the point of complete reaction, which is often determined by a sudden color change in the presence of an indicator solution. This technique matches the one described in the stimulus, in which silver nitrate solution of known concentration is slowly added to 50 mL of a salty liquid food product until the reaction between the silver ions and available chloride ions is complete, as indicated by the appearance of an orange/red color. Therefore, the correct response is option A.

Option B is incorrect because chromatography is used to separate components of a mixture. Option C is incorrect because calorimetry is used to measure heat exchanges in chemical reactions. Option D is incorrect because electrolysis uses electrical energy to drive nonspontaneous chemical reactions.

Gather Study Materials

For all content areas, think about where you might be able to obtain materials for review:

Do you know a teacher or professor who can help you organize your study? Would a study group suit you and help you maintain momentum? People have different study methods that work for them — use whatever you know that works for you.

Preparation manuals are available for all Texas educator certification program exams. Each prep manual provides a combination of exam preparation and practice, including sample questions and answers with explanations. You can also find informational tutorials and some interactive practice exams.

Plan and Organize Your Time

You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials. Allow yourself plenty of review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. Here are a few tips:

Develop Your Study Plan

A study plan provides a roadmap to prepare for the exams. It can help you understand what skills and knowledge are covered on the exam and where to focus your attention. A study plan worksheet is available on the Texas Educator Certification Examination Program website. You can use this worksheet to:

  1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your exam as defined in the preparation manual.
  2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify where you have thorough understanding and where you need additional study in each content area.
  3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use to study for each content area.
  4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.


Exams with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. As a teacher, you'll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear, understandable way. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words accurately, completely, and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively explain what you know.

Using Study Materials as Part of a Study Group

People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are working toward the same goal. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed answers. In a group, some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics, while others in the group may be better at other topics. As members take turns explaining concepts to each other, everyone builds self-confidence.

If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well, the group can go to a teacher or other expert and get answers efficiently. Because study groups schedule regular meetings, members study in a more disciplined fashion. They also gain emotional support. The group should be large enough so that various people can contribute various kinds of knowledge, but small enough so that it stays focused. Often, three to six members is a good size.

Here are some ways to use the preparation manual as part of a study group:

Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members did not perform well. For example, each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in which someone else did an inadequate job.

Whether you decide to study alone or with a group, remember that the best way to prepare is to have an organized plan. The plan you follow should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn, and it should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting these goals. Then you need to discipline yourself to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule.

Smart Tips for Success

Learn from the experts. Take advantage of these answers to questions you may have and practical tips to help you navigate the exam and make the best use of your time.

Should I guess?

Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty or subtraction for an incorrect answer. When you don't know the answer to a question, try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers and then guess at the correct one. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider every question.

Are there trick questions on the exam?

No. There are no hidden meanings or trick wording. All of the questions on the exam ask about subject matter knowledge in a straightforward manner.

Are there answer patterns on the exam?

No. You might have heard this myth: The answers on selected-response exams follow patterns. Another myth is that there will never be more than two questions with the same lettered answer following each other. Neither myth is true. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject.

Can I write on the erasable sheet(s) I am given?

Yes. You can work out problems or make notes to yourself on the erasable sheet(s) provided to you by the test administrator. You may use your notes in any way that is useful to you, but be sure to enter your final answers on the computer. No credit is given for anything written on the erasable sheet(s).

Tips for Taking the Exam

  1. Skip the questions you find extremely difficult. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass through the exam, leave them blank and mark them. Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the exam, and try to finish with 10 or 15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Even if you don't know the answer the second time you read the questions, see if you can narrow down the possible answers and then guess.
  2. Keep track of the time. Keep an eye on the timer, and be aware of how much time you have left to complete your exam. You will probably have plenty of time to answer all of the questions, but if you find yourself becoming stuck on one question, you might decide to move on and return to that question later.
  3. Read all of the possible answers before selecting one. Then, reread the question to be sure the answer you have selected really answers the question. Remember, a question that contains a phrase such as "Which of the following does NOT ..." is asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion.
  4. Check your answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the exam, look over each question and make sure that you have answered it as you intended. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they could have corrected if they had checked their answers.
  5. Don't worry about your score when you are taking the exam. No one is expected to answer all of the questions correctly. Your score on this exam is not analogous to your score on other similar-looking (but in fact very different!) exams. It doesn't matter on the exams whether you score very high or barely pass. If you meet the minimum passing scores along with any other requirements for obtaining teaching certification, you will receive a license. In other words, what matters is meeting the minimum passing score.
  6. Use your energy to take the exam, not to get angry at it. Getting angry at the exam only increases stress and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. Highly qualified educators and exam development professionals, all with backgrounds in teaching and educational leadership, worked diligently to make the exam a fair and valid measure of your knowledge and skills. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions.

Do Your Best on Exam Day

You followed your study plan. You are ready for the exam. Now it's time to prepare for exam day.

Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual exam date so you avoid cramming. Take a dry run to the test center so you're sure of the route, traffic conditions, and parking. Most of all, you want to eliminate any unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goal — passing the exam!

On the day of the exam, you should:

You cannot control the testing situation, but you can control yourself. Stay calm. The supervisors are well trained and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions. You can think of preparing for this exam as training for an athletic event. Once you have trained, prepared, and rested, give it your best effort...and good luck!

Are You Ready?

Review this list to determine if you're ready to take your exam.

If you answered "yes" to the questions above, your preparation has paid off. Now take the exam, do your best, pass it — and begin your teaching career!

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